A list of the deposited type specimens with references, a detailed historical background, importance, and maintenance procedures are given for the type collection of the United States Department of Agriculture Nematode Collection (USDANC). The type specimen section is considered one of the largest and most valuable in existence. It contains 1,430 species mounted and preserved on 5,177 metal and glass slides and 404 vials. Also, a brief description of the other constituent divisions of the collection is given, which, including the type collection, consists of 34,000 permanent slides and vials and 19,500 species entries. The list of deposited types is a type specimen location reference only and should not be used for the status of type species. The generic and specific names are arranged in alphabetical order and are given as indicated by the author(s) or depositor(s) when the types were deposited in the type section of the USDANC. The complete title of the reference is not given for each species, only the author's date, and source and slide number(s). Also, included are authors of designated types other than those of the original type series, e.g. paralectotype, allolectotype, neotype.
allotype; collection; holotype; lectotype; nematode; neotype; paratype; species; taxonomy; type collection; type specimen
A stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus thermophilus n. sp., is described and illustrated from soil collected around roots of saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) in Death Valley, California. It is distinguished from the similar species, T. ewingi, T. mexicanus, and T. mashoodi, in having a longer female body, longer tail with more annules, and larger phasmids. Physical and chemical analysis of soil from saltgrass roots showed it to consist of 71% sand and possess high salinity (salt content of 0.51%) and a pH of 9.3.
California; Death Valley; Distichlis spicata; morphology; new species; sahgrass; stunt nematode; taxonomy; temperature; Tylenchorhynchus ewingi; T. mashoodi; T. mexicanus; T. thermophilus
Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. is described and illustrated from American beachgrass (Ammophila breviliffulata) originally collected from Henlopen State Park and Fenwick Island near the Maryland state line in Delaware, United States (6). Its relationship to M. graminis, M. spartinae, and M. californiensis is discussed. Primary distinctive characters of the female perineal pattern were a high to rounded arch with shoulders, widely spaced lateral lines interrupting transverse striations, a sunken vulva and anus, and coarse broken striae around the anal area. Second-stage juvenile body length was 554 μm (470-550), stylet length 14 μm (13-14.5), tail length 93 μm (83-115), tapering to a finely rounded terminus. Male stylet length 20 μm (19-21.5), spicule length 33 μm (30-36). Scanning electron microscope observations provided additional details of perineal patterns and face views of the female, male, and J2 head. Wheat, rice, oat, Ammophila sp., Panicum sp., bermudagrass, zoysiagrass and St. Augustinegrass were tested as hosts. Distribution of the species was the coasts of Delaware and Maryland. The common name "beachgrass root-knot" is proposed for M. sasseri n. sp.
Ammophila breviligulata; Arena sativa; beachgrass; Cynodon dactylon; Delaware; Maryland; Meloidogyne californiensis; M. graminis; M. sasseri; M. spartinae; morphology; nematode; new species; Oryza sativa; Panicum amarulum; scanning electron microscopy; Stenotaphrum secundatum; taxonomy; Triticum aestivum; Zea mays; Zoysia japonica
A lesion nematode, Pratylenchus gutierrezi n. sp., collected from the roots of coffee in the Central Plateau of Costa Rica, is described and illustrated. Its relationships to Pratylenchus flakkensis, P. similis, and P. gibbicaudatus, the only other species of the genus having two head annules, males, or spermatheca with sperm, and an annulated tail terminus, is discussed. Other distinctive characters are its posterior vulva (mean of 80%); its prominently rounded stylet knobs, low head, and subcylindrical tail. SEM observations provide additional details of females and males, especially face views, which show for the first time sexual dimorphism.
Coffea arabica; Costa Rica; lesion nematode; morphology; nematode; new species; Pratylenchus flakkensis; P. gibbicaudatus; P. gutierrezi n. sp.; P. similis; scanning electron microscopy; SEM; taxonomy
An identification key to 29 valid species of Hoplolaimus is given. A compendium of the most important diagnostic characters for use in identification of species is included as a practical alternative and supplement to the key. Diagnosis of Hoplolaimus is emended and lists of species of the genus, their synonymies, species inquirendae, nomina nuda, and species transferred to other genera are given. Hoplolaimus sheri, H. chambus, H. casparus, and H. capensis are recognized as valid species.
Compendium; diagnostic; Hoplolaimidae; Hoplolaimus; identification; key; lance nematode; morphology; Nematoda; taxonomy
Specimens of Meloidogyne marylandi from Bermuda grass and a population from Zoysia grass were examined and compared morphologically by light and electron microscopy. The populations probably are conspecific and the differences noted in the Zoysia population, mainly those of second-stage juveniles (J2) with shorter tails, are considered normal variations rather than representing another form. Scanning electron microscope observations provided additional details of the perineal pattern and head of females and head and lateral fields of second-stage juveniles. Relationship of M. marylandi to closely related species is given. This species is currently known to occur only in Maryland, and populations previously reported from this state as M. graminis are now considered to be M. marylandi. Other reports of M. graminis in the United States now need to be reconfirmed by examination of voucher or recollected specimens.
host; Meloidogyne marylandi; morphology; population; root-knot nematode; taxonomy; turf grass
An identification key to 63 species of Pratylenchus is given. A compendium of the most diagnostic characters to be used directly in identification of species is included as a practical alternative and supplement to the key. P. tenuis, P. similis, P. impar, P. ranjani, and P. neocapitatus are recognized as valid species on the basis of study of type specimens. P. hyderabadensis Singh &Gill, 1986 is synonymized with P. dasi Fortuner, 1985. P. hexincisus Taylor &Jenkins, 1957 is confirmed as occasionally having 4 -6 lines in lateral field (instead of 6 only). Comments on the status of some species and a list of species of the genus are given.
diagnostic compendium; identification; key; morphology; Pratylenchus; taxonomy
Juveniles ofBakernema inaequale and the male of Ogma cobbi are described and illustrated for the first time. Juveniles of Bakernema inaequale lack the cuticular spines characteristic of the adults. The annules of first-stage and fourth-stage juveniles are smooth, whereas those of the second-stage and third-stage juveniles have faint, bead-like ornamentation either throughout the body or in the anterior or posterior part only. Detailed morphometric data of O. cobbi males and all juvenile stages and females of B. inaequale are given.
ring nematode; life stage; morphology; taxonomy; distribution; host
Heterodera fici is redescribed and illustrated with comparative details and revised measurements and diagnostic characters of the females, males, cysts, and juveniles from Maryland and Pakistan. This species is in the "schachtii group" (cysts lemon shaped, with bullae, and ambifenestrate) but the fenestrae in some cysts, presumab!y young ones, are small and widely spaced, appearing bifenestrate. It is most closely related to H. schachtii, H. glycines, and H. cajani but differs from these species especially in having cysts with small, scattered bullae and weakly developed underbridge; and males with four small nipples on tail tip. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the specimens are also presented. The relationship of this species to closely related forms is discussed.
distribution; fig cyst nematode; identification; morphology; taxonomy
Two new species of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus quaidi n. sp. and T. tritici n. sp.) from Pakistan are described and illustrated. Tylenchorhynchus quaidi n. sp., from soil around roots of potato (Solanum tuberosum) from an experimental field of NNRC, Karachi, Pakistan, is distinguishable from other species by its peculiar sunken dome-shaped head. Although similar to T. goffarti, it differs by head shape, areolation of lateral field, ratios a (23-28 vs. 29-37) and c (11-14 vs. 13-20), and a vagina that is half sclerotized and half unsclerotized. Tylenchorhynchus tritici n. sp., from soil around roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum) from Campbellpur, Pakistan, is similar to T. ventrosignatus and T. nordiensis. It differs from T. ventrosignatus by a continuous lip region, number of head annules (2-3 vs. 4), coarse body annulation, absence of a wave-like structure near the vulva, and by tail shape and number of tail annules (15-23 vs. 28-32). It differs from T. nordiensis by stylet length (12.4-14.6 vs. 11-13 μm), shape of stylet knobs, number of head annules (2-3 vs. 4), non-areolated lateral field in region of phasmids, and not fusing in posterior third of tail. Morphometrics of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni from soil around stunted maize (Zea mays L.), in Muscatine County, Iowa, and several other populations are given. Detailed morphometric data on T. claytoni based on topotypes collected from type locality and several other populations revealed that this species shows variations in the shape of tail in females, number of tail annules (and sometimes annules extending further back on the terminus, almost being an annulated terminus), position of phasmid, and shape of lip region. The subgenus Bitylenchus is proposed as a new synonym of Tylenchorhynchus and its species referred to the latter genus.
taxonomy; morphology; Tylenchorhynchus; new species; potato; Solanum tuberosum; wheat; Triticum aestivum; maize; Zea mays L.
Dolichodorus cobbi n. sp. is described and illustrated from soil around roots of "woods" on the Stanley Farm, Scott County, Arkansas. This species is distinguishable from others of the genus by its short tail projection. It is most closely related to D. marylandicus but differs in having a short tail projection, longer stylet, greater body length, larger c value, and also in position of excretory pore. A limited number of Cobb's original specimens and drawings of D. heterocephalus were examined. A lectotype and paralectotype were designated to establish the taxonomic base for the genus. Cobb's original modified labeled drawing of D. heterocephalus is also included. Morphometric data on D. heterocephalus from the type locality and several other populations are given. Some variations in female tail shape, body length, and stylet length were noted.
taxonomy; morphology; new species; Dolichodorus; woods
Meloidogyne christiei n. sp. is described and illustrated from turkey oak (Quercus laevis) in Sanlando Park, Altamonte Springs, Florida. This new nematode species has a distinctive perineal pattern commonly with a high, squarish arch and coarse broken striae which tend to diverge at various angles, especially in and above the anal area. Female labial disc is indented, forming four points or prongs, unlike other species. Eggs are deposited inside the gall in a tubular, coiled manner. Vaginal muscles are exceptionally prominent and dense. SEM observations provided further detail of the perineal pattern and details of the head of females, males, and second-stage juveniles. Galls on the root commonly occur singly, but sometimes in small clusters, and appear as discrete nodules on the side of the root and without adjacent swelling. In general, only one female is found in each gall but occasionally two are present. In greenhouse tests, citrus, tobacco, cotton, pepper, watermelon, peanut, and tomato were not hosts. This nematode occurs throughout central Florida commonly on Q. laevis, the only known host.
taxonomy; morphology; root-knot nematode; new species; SEM ultrastructure; Quercus laevis
Meloidoderita polygoni n. sp. is described and illustrated from roots of smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides) from Beltsville, Maryland. This new species is similar to M. kirjanovae but differs especially in having larger spines on the cystoid bodies, females with the anus much closer to the vulva, and more posterior excretory pore. M. polygoni differs from M. safrica particularly in having females with a shorter stylet, a DGO much closer to base of stylet, greater distance between vulva and anus, and larger cystoid bodies. LM and SEM observations showed only three incisures in lateral fields of juveniles and males and no bursa in males. Morphometric data and illustrations are given for M. kirjanovae from mint (Mentha longifolia) in Israel and some details on a limited number of specimens from Armenian SSR. LM examination of juveniles from both these areas indicated only three incisures in lateral fields. Males from Israel had no detectable bursa and appeared to have only three incisures in lateral fields. (Males from Armenian SSR not observed.)
taxonomy; morphology; new species; SEM ultrastructure; smartweed; Polygonum hydropiperoides; mint; Mentha Iongifolia; hosts; distribution
Xiphinema americanum is redescribed and illustrated from material collected from Arlington Cemetery, near Cobb's type locality (Falls Church, Virginia), Morphometric data showing variations within this species are given for three additional populations.
taxonomy; dagger nematode
Diagnoses of the cyst-forming genera of Heteroderidae (viz., Heterodera, Sarisodera, Globodera, Punctodera, Cactodera, and Dolichodera) and distribution and morphometrics of the 34 known cyst species in the Western Hemisphere are presented along with an illustrated key for the identification of these genera and species. The key is based mainly on cysts and larvae, and important morphological and diagnostic features are extensively shown by LM and SEM illustrations. The genus Bidera is placed as a new synonym under the genus Heterodera.
cyst nematodes; taxonomy; identification
Heterodera zeae, the corn cyst nematode, is redescribed and illustrated with comparative details and measurements of females, cysts, and larvae from Maryland, USA; and India. Scanning electron micrographs o f specimens from the United States are also presented. Revised measurements for the larval stylet and new diadnostic characters, especially in the cyst cone, for H. zeae are given. The relationship of H. zeae to close species is discussed.
Heterodera zeae; cyst nematode; species; taxonomy; identification; distribution
Though in the past Xiphinema americanum has been the most commonly reported dagger nematode in the eastern United States, our studies revealed the presence in Pennsvlvania of a previously unrecognized and unreported species related to X. americanum, Morphometric data and photomicrographs establish the identity of this form as X. rivesi and show expected variations in populations of this species from various locations. Similar data and illustrations are given for X. americanum populations from Pennsylvania and other areas, showing variations and relationships. Xiphinema rivesi is widely distributed in the fruit producing area of south-central Pennsylvania and is also reported herein from raspberry in Vermont and apple in Maryland and New York. This species is frequently found in fruit growing areas of Pennsylvania associated with tomato ringspot virus-induced diseases and is also found associated with corn, bluegrass sod, and alfalfa.
Xiphinema americanum; X. rivesi; morphology; occurrence; fruit orchards; virus transmission
Tylenchorhynchus cylindricus is redescribed and illustrated from N. A. Cobb's original specimens collected in 1910. In 1955 M. W. Allen established a neotype from specimens collected near Cathedral City, California. Recently Cobb's original sketches, line drawings, and balsam slides were rediscovered and examined. The specimens collected by Cobb were compared with the neotype established by Allen and with other collections of nominal T. cylindricus. Differences in morphology of the Cathedral City (Allen) and Los Patos (Cobb) populations were observed. Collections of males and females from Cathedral City, California; Mosida, Utah; and Kings County, California; were similar to each other except for some variation in female tail shape. Females in Cobb's collection and in a collection from a beach near Ensenada, Mexico, were similar to each other but differed morphologically from other collections. We consider all collections to represent a range of variation within the species. A lectotype and an allolectotype were selected to establish the taxonomic base for the genus. A ruling has been requested from the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature on the disposition of the neotype.
taxonomy; morphology; grass
Meloidogyne nataliei n. sp. is described and illustrated from grape (Vitis labrusca) in a declining vineyard at Mattawan, Michigan, USA. Infected grape roots exhibit no hyperplastic symptoms. Females protrude from the roots and are surrounded by a massive egg sac containing many eggs. This new species is distinguishable from other species of the genus especially by its large, striking perineal pattern with, usually, two ropelike separated striae on each side extending laterally from the vulval and anal areas. Among other diagnostic characters are the location of the female excretory pore adjacent to or near the base of the head and the heavy larval stylet averaging about 22 μm in length. Examination of males, females, and larvae with the scanning electron microscope confirmed observations made by optical microscopy and revealed diagnostic and other structures in greater detail. Of particular significance was the nature of the male head, with a massive circular labial disc on which is located a rectangular structure surrounding the oral opening, and the six distinct lips appearing as a rosette in en face view. The known distribution of this new species is presently limited to its original location in Michigan.
taxonomy; morphology; Meloidogyne; root-knot; new species; SEM ultrastructure; grape; Vitis labrusca
Dolichodorus marylandicus n. sp. is described and illustrated from grass (Zoysia japonica) in College Park, Maryland. Specimens have also been collected from perennial bluegrass (Poa pratensis) pasture at Beltsville, Maryland, and from pine (Pinus sp.) in North Carolina. This new species is related to D. heterocephalus Cobb, D. similis Golden, and D. aestuarius Chow &Taylor. Females are distinct in having a longer styler and shorter body length than D. aestuarius. The excretory pore is at the level of the isthmus or slightly posterior and the tail is abruptly reduced in diameter, tapering to an acuminate terminus. The tails of D. similis and D. heterocephalus conically taper to a median point, with D. similis having an especially long tail. D. marylandicus does not possess the rounded, sclerotized accessory structures adjacent to the vulva observed in lateral views of D. similis and D. heterocephalus. SEM observations of D. heterocephalus and D. marylandicus revealed details of the head of males and females, and species difference in shape of the oral disc.
taxonomy; morphology; Doliehodorus; awl nematode; new species; SEM ultrastructure; grass; Zoysia japonica; Poa pratensis; Pinus; pine
TrilineeIlus clathrocutis n.g., n.sp. is described and illustrated. It was found as an associate of corn (Zea mays) in Stockton, Georgia, USA, and is related to a group of Tylenchorhynchus sensu lato species having three lines in nonareolated lateral fields. This new species is closely related to Tylenehorhynehus divittatus Siddiqi 1961, T. sculptus Seinhorst 1963, and T. triglyphus Seinhorst 1963 (syn. T. chonai Sethi & Swarup 1968) Tarjan 1973. It differs from these species primarily by having longitudinal striae on the body. These four species are differentiated from Tylenchorhynchus sensu stricto by having three lateral lines instead of four. They differ from Uliginotylenchus Siddiqi 1971 by having nonareolated lateral fields, fewer than 25 annules on conoid rounded tails, differently shaped gubernacula, nonattenuated stylets, and other distinctive characters. They differ from Triversus Sher 1973 by having the male tail enclosed by the bursa and by having rounded female tails. SEM observations of T. clathrocutis reveal a cuticle deeply cut by longitudinal and horizontal striae and bearing wide (> 2.0 μm) annules. Trilineellus is proposed to accommodate the new species and the three-incisured species still within Tylenchorhynchus. Tylenchorhynchus is thereby the repository for species within Tylenchorhynchinae having four lines in the lateral field, no conspicuous labial disc, and bursa enclosing the male tail.
taxonomy; morphology; Tylenchorhynchus; Trilineellus; Uliginotylenchus; Quinisulcius; Triversus; stunt nematode; new species; new genus; ryegrass; corn; SEM ultrastructure; Lolium perenne; Zea mays
Meloidogyne chitwoodi n. sp. is described and illustrated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) originally collected from Quincy, Washington, USA. This new species resembles M. hapla, but its perineal pattern is basically round to oval with distinctive and broken, curled, or twisted striae around and above the anal area. The vulva is in a sunken area devoid of striae. Vesicles or vesicle-like structures are present in the median bulb of females. The larva tail, being short and blunt with a hyaline tail terminal having little or no taper to its rounded terminus, is distinctively different from M. hapla. SEM observations revealed the nature of the perineal pattern and details of the head of larvae and males, and showed the spicules to have dentate tips ventrally. Hosts for M. chitwoodi n. sp. include potato, tomato, corn, and wheat but not strawberry, pepper, or peanut. The latter three crops are excellent hosts for M. hapla. The known distribntion of this new root-knot species presently involves certain areas of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. The common name "Columbia root-knot nematode" is proposed for M. chitwoodi n. sp.
taxonomy; morphology; Meloidogyne; root-knot; new species; SEM ultrastructure; potato; Solarium tuberosum; hosts
Meloidogyne camelliae n.sp. on camellia (Camellia japonica) from Japan and M. querciana n.sp. on pin oak (Quercus palustris) from Virginia, USA, are described and illustrated. M. camelliae n.sp. is distingnishable from other species of the genus especially by its striking perineal pattern having heavy ropelike striae forming a squarish to rectangular outline with shoulders or projections, appearing sometimes ahnost starlike. M. querciana differs from other species by its characteristic perineal pattern round to oval in outline, sometimes with a low arch, and sunken vulva surrounded by a prominent obovate area devoid of striae. M. querciana shows some relationship to M. ovalis, but differs further fxom the latter by longer larvae, absence of annules on head of larvae, and rarity of males. Examination of specimens of M. camelliae n.sp. and M. querciana n.sp. with the scanning electron microscope confirmed observations made by optical microscopy and revealed diagnostic and other structures in greater detail. In greenhouse host tests, M. camelliae infected camellia heavily, showed moderate infection on oxalis, only a trace infection on tomato, and no infection on five other plants tested; and M. querciana attacked pin oak, red oak, and American chestnut heavily, but did not infect nine other test plants. In another test, pin oak seedlings did not become infected when heavily inoculated with and grown in the presence of two populations of M. incognita incognita and one of M. incognita acrita. The common names "camellia root-knot nematode" and "oak root-knot nematode" are respectively proposed for M. camelliae and M. querciana.
taxonomy; morphology; SEM ultrastructure; host-range; camellia; Camellia japonica; pin oak; Quercus palustris; red oak; Q. rubra
Helicotylenchus oleae n. sp. and H. neopaxilli n. sp., from olive roots and soil in Italy, are described and illustrated. Helicotylenchus oleae can be distinguished from the related species H. canadensis and H. tunisiensis especially by the smaller styler, its distinctive tail shape, and a tail longer than one anal body width. Helicotylenchus neopaxilli differs from the close species H. paxilli by having a conical, anteriorly truncated labial region, shorter stylet, and phasmids always anterior to level of anus. Also illustrated and discussed are histopathological changes within feeder roots of olive caused by the feeding activity of the semi-endoparasitic H. oleae.
Meloidogyne grahami n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) originally from Florence, South Carolina. Considered for several years to be only a race of M. ineognita, this new species readily attacks NC-95 tobacco, a variety with resistance to the M. incognita group that is common in the major U.S. tobacco-producing areas. M. grahami n. sp. is related most closely to the three subspecies of the M. incognita group but differs from all of them, especially in its distinctive perineal pattern and larger larvae (av. 421 μm, vs. 385 μm or less). Also, the dorsal esophageal gland orifice of females of M. grahami n. sp. is further from the base of the styler (5 μm) than in M. i. incognita and M. i. acrita. Comments are given on the distribution of this new species.
taxonomy; morphology; new Meloidogyne species; resistance-breaking; Nicotiana tabacum