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1.  Soil Temperature Effects on the Interaction of Grape Rootstocks and Plant-parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(1):49-57.
Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in commonly used resistant grape rootstocks is slightly compromised at soil temperatures above 27°C. Newly released UCD-GRN series rootstocks, which have broad nematode resistance, exhibit trace infections by Meloidogyne spp. at elevated temperature. Pathotypes of M. incognita and M. arenaria that are virulent on ‘Harmony’ rootstock, as well as M. incognita Race 3, which is avirulent on ‘Harmony’, failed to produce egg masses on the UCD-GRN series rootstocks and other resistant selections at 24°C. At 27°C and above, there was increased nematode galling and egg mass production; at 30°C, egg mass production levels of M. incognita Race 3 on ‘Harmony’ were up to 12% of that on susceptible ‘Colombard’ while reproduction of the virulent pathotypes on the UCD-GRN series was less than 5% of that on ‘Colombard’. Resistance of several of the parental genotypes of the UCD-GRN rootstock series was slightly compromised at soil temperatures of 30°C and above; however, others maintained their resistance to even the virulent M. arenaria pathotype A at high temperatures. Effects of high temperature on resistance to Xiphinema index could not be assessed because of temperature sensitivity of the nematodes while resistance to Mesocriconema xenoplax was not compromised at high soil temperature. Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in the UCD-GRN series rootstocks was not compromised when plants and nematodes were subjected to cyclical high and low temperature conditions, indicating that once initiated, the resistance mechanism is not reversed.
PMCID: PMC3625132  PMID: 23589660
Broad resistance; durable resistance; host status; temperature effects
2.  Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(4):377-386.
Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year screening process, 13 selections emerged with either almost complete or complete combined resistance to M. incognita Race 3, M. incognita pathotype Harmony C, M. arenaria pathotype Harmony A, and X. index, important nematode pests of grapevines. Durability of this broad resistance was tested by challenging the selections with the target nematodes in combination and with the target nematodes in combinations with species not included in the screening process. Durability of resistance of the candidate rootstocks was also tested by exposure to the nematode communities of infested field soils from different locations. Breadth of resistance was determined on the basis of their host status to non-target nematodes, including Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus vulnus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Paratylenchus hamatus. After a total of 204 separate trials, the rootstocks were released to the grape industry as UCD GRN1, UCD GRN2, UCD GRN3, UCD GRN4, and UCD GRN5. We provide a compilation of current knowledge of the host status of these five newly released rootstocks and of 27 other rootstock cultivars to plant-parasitic nematodes.
PMCID: PMC3592374  PMID: 23482972
Screening; selection; host status; broad resistance; durable resistance
3.  Population Characteristics and Dosage Trajectory Analysis for Mesocriconema xenoplax in California Prunus Orchards 
Journal of Nematology  2004;36(4):505-516.
The Mesocriconema xenoplax population increased exponentially in a newly planted peach orchard. The rate of increase was greater on Nemaguard than on Lovell rootstock and was reduced by postplant nematicides. Population levels were more stable in an established almond orchard on Nemaguard rootstock. All life stages of the nematode were present year round; lower ratios of juveniles to adults in summer suggested adverse effects of temperature and dry soil. Also in summer, there was a smaller proportion of the population in the upper 30 cm of soil than at greater depths. Nematode dosage, average nematode density multiplied by accumulated degree-days (physiological time) of the sampling interval, was useful in quantifying nematode stress on trees and as an indicator of the nematode management effectiveness. The annual trajectory of the nematode dosage could be determined by two samplings, one in spring and one in fall. A nematode predator, the parasitic fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis, did not regulate ring nematode populations in the newly planted orchard; a recovery period was necessary for increase in the prevalence of parasitism.
PMCID: PMC2620792  PMID: 19262832
bacterial canker; Mesocriconema xenoplax; nematicides; nematode management; population regulation; Prunus; rootstocks; stress dosage
4.  Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Laboratory Efficacy, Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in Soil, and Phytotoxicity Assays 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(2):124-129.
Extracts of Chinese herbal medicines from plants representing 13 families were tested for their ability to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes. Effective concentration (EC50 and EC90) levels for 18 of the extracts were determined in laboratory assays with Meloidogyne javanica juveniles and all stages of Pratylenchus vulnus. Efficacy of 17 extracts was tested against M. javanica in soil. Generally, EC50 and EC90 values determined in the laboratory were useful indicators for application rates in the soil. Extracts tested from plants in the Liliaceae reduced galling of tomato by M. javanica and were not phytotoxic. Similarly, isothiocyanate-yielding plants in the Brassicaceae suppressed root galling without phytotoxicity. Other plant extracts, including those from Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, and Hedera helix, suppressed root galling but were phytotoxic at the higher concentrations tested. Many of these plant sources have been tested elsewhere. Inconsistency in results across studies points to the need for identification of active components and for determination of concentration levels of these components when plant residues or extracts are applied to soil.
PMCID: PMC2620549  PMID: 19265919
botanicals; herbal remedies; Meloidogyne javanica; natural products; plant extracts; plant-parasitic nematodes; Pratylenchus vulnus; suppression; toxic effects; phytotoxicity
5.  Relationship Between Crop Losses and Initial Population Densities of Meloidogyne arenaria in Winter-Grown Oriental Melon in Korea 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(1):43-49.
To determine the economic threshold level, oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Geumssaragi-euncheon) grafted on Shintozoa (Cucurbita maxima × Cu. moschata) was planted in plots (2 × 3 m) under a plastic film in February with a range of initial population densities (Pi) of Meloidogyne arenaria. The relationships of early, late, and total yield to Pi measured in September and January were adequately described by both linear regression and the Seinhorst damage model. Initial nematode densities in September in excess of 14 second-stage juveniles (J2)/100 cm³ soil caused losses in total yields that exceeded the economic threshold and indicate the need for fosthiazate nematicide treatment at current costs. Differences in yield-loss relationships to Pi between early- and late-season harvests enhance the resolution of the management decision and suggest approaches for optimizing returns. Determination of population levels for advisory purposes can be based on assay samples taken several months before planting, which allows time for implementation of management procedures. We introduce (i) an amendment of the economic threshold definition to reflect efficacy of the nematode management procedure under consideration, and (ii) the concept of profit limit as the nematode population at which net returns from the system will become negative.
PMCID: PMC2620531  PMID: 19265907
Cucumis melo; economic threshold; management efficacy; Meloidogyne arenaria; oriental melon; population density; profit limit; root-knot nematode
6.  Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Effects on Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne javanica 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(3):241-263.
More than 500 plant species, used alone or in combination, are documented in Chinese traditional medicine to have activity against helminth and micro-invertebrate pests of humans. We subjected 153 candidate medicines or their plant sources to multilevel screening for effectiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes. For extracts effective in preliminary screens, we determined time-course and concentration-response relationships. Seventy-three of the aqueous extracts of medicines or their plant sources killed either Meloidogyne javanica juveniles or Pratylenchus vulnus (mixed stages), or both, within a 24-hour exposure period. Of 64 remedies reported as antihelminthics, 36 were effective; of 21 classi- fied as purgatives, 13 killed the nematodes; of 29 indicated as generally effective against pests, 13 killed the nematodes. Sources of extracts effective against one or both species of plant-parasitic nematodes are either the whole plant or vegetative, storage or reproductive components of the plants. Effective plants include both annuals and perennials, range from grasses and herbs to woody trees, and represent 46 plant families.
PMCID: PMC2620379  PMID: 19270895
botanicals; china; herbal remedies; Meloidogyne javanica; narcotic effects; natural products; plant extracts; plant-parasitic nematodes; Pratylenchus vulnus; suppression; toxic effects
7.  Sequential Decision Rules for Managing Nematodes with Crop Rotations 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):457-474.
A dynamic model of nematode populations under a crop rotation that includes both host and nonhost crops is developed and used to conceptualize the problem of economic control. The steady state of the dynamic system is used to devise an approximately optimal decision policy, which is then applied to cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) control in a rotation of sugarbeet with nonhost crops. Long-run economic returns from this approximately optimal decision rule are compared with results from solution of the exact dynamic optimization model. The simple decision rule based on the steady state provides long-run average returns that are similar to the fully optimal solution. For sugarbeet and H. schachtii, the simplified rule can be calculated by maximizing a relatively simple algebraic expression with respect to the number of years in the sequence of nonhost crops. Maximization is easy because only integers are of interest and the number of years in nonhost crops is typically small. Solution of this problem indirectly yields an approximation to the optimal dynamic economic threshold density of nematodes in the soil. The decision rule requires knowledge of annual nematode population change under host and nonhost crops, and the relationship between crop yield and nematode population density.
PMCID: PMC2619718  PMID: 19277164
crop rotation; cyst nematode; decision rule; dynamic control; economics; economic threshold; Heterodera schachtii; optimization; sugarbeet
8.  Effect of Lime on Criconemella xenoplax and Bacterial Canker in Two California Orchards 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4S):606-611.
In a peach orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.9, preplant application of 0, 13.2, 18.2, 27.3, or 54.2 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.8-7.3) but did not affect numbers of Criconemella xenoplax or tree circumference. Liming also failed to reduce the incidence of bacterial canker, which affected 17% of the trees by the sixth year after planting. Four years after planting, numbers of C. xenoplax exceeded 400/100 cm³ soil, regardless of treatment. Trees with higher densities of C. xenoplax had a higher incidence of canker. The nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis was not detected until the fourth year. Thereafter, the incidence of H. rhossiliensis and percentage C. xenoplax parasitized by H. rhossiliensis increased, but the increases lagged behind increases in numbers of nematodes. In an almond orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.6, preplant application of 0, 6.4, 12.8, or 25.0 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.7-7.1). Numbers of C. xenoplax remained low (<20/100 cm³ soil), whereas numbers of Paratylenchus sp. increased to high levels (>500/100 cm³ soil), regardless of treatment. Low levels (<20/100 cm³ soil) of H. rhossiliensis -parasitized Paratylenchus sp. were detected. No bacterial canker occurred, but tree circumference was greater after 6 years if soil pH was intermediate (6.0-7.0).
PMCID: PMC2619565  PMID: 19279934
almond; biocontrol; biological control; Criconemella xenoplax; Hirsutella rhossiliensis ; lime; nematode; Paratylenchus sp.; peach; Prunus dulcis; Prunus persica; soil pH
9.  Parasitism of Nematodes by the Fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis as Affected by Certain Organic Amendments 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(2):152-161.
Experiments were conducted to determine whether the addition of organic matter to soil increased numbers of bacterivorous nematodes and parasitic activity of the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis. In a peach orchard on loamy sand, parasitism of the plant-parasitic nematode Criconemella xenoplax by H. rhossiliensis was slightly suppressed and numbers of C. xenoplax were not affected by addition of 73 metric tons of composted chicken manure/ha. In the laboratory, numbers of bacterivorous nematodes (especially Acrobeloides spp.) and fungivorous nematodes increased but parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis usually decreased with addition of wheat straw or composted cow manure to a loamy sand naturally infested with H. rhossiliensis. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic amendments will enhance parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis.
PMCID: PMC2619489  PMID: 19279878
bacterivorous nematode; biocontrol; biological control; Criconemella xenoplax; density-dependent parasitism; fungivorous nematode; Hirsutella rhossiliensis; nematode; nematophagous fungus; organic amendment
10.  Plant and Soil Nematodes: Societal Impact and Focus for the Future. 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(2):127-137.
Plant and soil nematodes significandy impact our lives. Therefore, we must understand and manage these complex organisms so that we may continue to develop and sustain our food production systems, our natural resources, our environment, and our quality of life. This publication looks specifically at soil and plant nematology. First, the societal impact of nematodes and benefits of nematology research are briefly presented. Next, the opportunities facing nematology in the next decade are outlined, as well as the resources needed to address these priorities. The safety and sustainability of U.S. food and fiber production depends on public and administrative understanding of the importance of nematodes, the drastic effects of nematodes on many agricultural and horticultural crops, and the current research priorities of nematology.
PMCID: PMC2619488  PMID: 19279875
alternative management tactics; behavior; benefit to society; beneficial nematodes; biochemistry; biological control; constraints in nematology; control; crop rotation; cultural practice; ecology; education; environment; extension; diagnostics; funding; genetics; host-parasite interaction; information transfer; molecular genetics; nematicide; nematode; nematology; nematode management; nutrient cycling; pesticide; plant parasites; research goals; research priorities; resistance; resource; science of nematology; society; spread; sustainable agriculture; systematics
11.  Host Status of Selected Crops to Meloidogyne chitwoodi 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(4S):849-857.
Various crops were tested in greenhouse and field trials for their potential utility in the rotation sequence in the potato cropping system in Meloidogyne chitwoodi-infested soils of the Klamath Basin in northeastern California and southern Oregon. Two Solarium accessions from the International Potato Center in Peru were potential sources of resistance to M. chitwoodi. Cultivars of barley, oat, rye, wheat, and white lupine were maintenance hosts, supporting the nematode population at its current level without substantial increase or decline. Poor to nonhosts to race 1 of the nematode included cultivars of alfalfa, amaranth, oilseed radish, oilseed rape, and safflower. These crops have potential for inclusion in the cropping system but are subject to various constraints, including frost sensitivity and availability of markets. Sugarbeet, a new crop in the area, is a maintenance or better host of M. chitwoodi. Potato, tomato, and sunflower are excellent hosts.
PMCID: PMC2619449  PMID: 19279852
alfalfa; amaranth; cereal; maintenance host; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; nematode; nonhost; oilseed radish; oilseed rape; poor host; potato; Pratylenchus neglectus; safflower; sugarbeet; sunflower; tomato
12.  Effects of Temperature on Pratylenchus neglectus and on Its Pathogenicity to Barley 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4):504-511.
In a petri-dish study, development of the nematode Pratylenchus neglectus was observed every 4 days, and stage-specific development times were estimated, using a parameter estimation algorithm for a distributed-delay population model. The lower threshold temperature for development of a population of P. neglectus was 7.75 C. Temperatures above 25 C were unfavorable for this population on barley. Total numbers of P. neglectus in barley roots and associated soil in pots were greatest at 25 C and lower at temperatures above and below that level. There was no change in nematode numbers per gram of root as temperature increased between 24 C and 32 C because root weights decreased at higher temperatures. Restricted root mass may contribute to the lower total nematode population levels at higher temperature. Maximum number of nematodes moved through a 2-cm layer of sand on a Baermann funnel at about 20 C; lowest number of nematodes moved at 10 C and 30 C.
PMCID: PMC2619300  PMID: 19283028
barley; development; lesion nematode; lower temperature threshold; movement; nematode; population; Pratylenchus neglectus; temperature
13.  Sampling Approaches for Extensive Surveys in Nematology 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):757-764.
Extensive surveys of the frequency and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes over large geographic areas provide useful data of unknown reliability. Time, cost, and logistical constraints may limit the sampling intensity that can be invested at any survey site. We developed a computer program to evaluate the probability of detection and the reliability of population estimates obtained by different strategies for collecting one sample of 10 cores from a field. We used data from two fields that had been sampled systematically and extensively as the basis for our analyses. Our analyses indicate that, at least for those two fields, it is possible to have a high probability of detecting the presence of nematode species and to reliably estimate abundance, with a single 10-core soil sample from a field. When species were rare or not uniformly distributed in a field, the probability of detection and reliability of the population estimate were correlated with the distance between core removal sites. Increasing the prescribed distance between cores resulted in the composite sample representing a wider range of microenvironments in the field.
PMCID: PMC2629861  PMID: 19283058
abundance; detection; frequency; nematode; plant-parasitic nematode; population density; sampling; survey
14.  Stability and Characteristics of Spatial Description Parameters for Nematode Populations 
Journal of Nematology  1990;22(4):427-439.
The parameters of Taylor's Power Law (s² = amb) relating variance (s²) to mean population level (m) were acceptably stable in different fields with similar cropping systems. Values of both a and b parameters varied with nematode species. The value of a was a function of sample size (number of cores) and was characterized for each species. The value of b was stable across sample size and reflective of the life history strategy of the species. The relationship between the economic threshold and sampling intensity required to allow management decisions, with specified levels of risk, indicated the need for improved sampling technology.
PMCID: PMC2619069  PMID: 19287742
economic threshold; management decision; precision; risk; Taylor's Power Law
15.  Physiological Response of Resistant and Susceptible Vitis vinifiera Cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1990;22(2):224-230.
The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on growth, general physiological response, and the concentration of reducing and nonreducing sugars at the nematode feeding sites of French Colombard (susceptible) and Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant) Vitis vinifiera cultivars was studied up to 2,100 degree-days (DD-base 10 C). Nematode stress dosage, measured as the product of cumulative number of juveniles and females and their total energy (calories) demand, accounted for up to 15 and 10% of the energy assimilated by French Colombard and Thompson Seedless plants, respectively. Total leaf area, total carbon dioxide fixed, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and internal leaf CO₂ concentration were not affected, but energy assimilated into plant tissue and respiration were decreased by nematode infection in both cultivars. Energy consumed by nematodes accounted for most of the difference in total energy assimilated between infected and uninfected plants on French Colombard but not on Thompson Seedless, suggesting that the resistant cultivar may be using more energy to curtail the nematode's activity. Nematodes did not affect the concentration of reducing sugars, but the concentration of nonreducing sugars increased in French Colombard and decreased in Thompson Seedless. This indicates that there was more translocation of photosynthate to the feeding sites of the susceptible than to those of the resistant cultivar, and may explain why M. incognita causes more damage to French Colombard than to Thompson Seedless.
PMCID: PMC2619037  PMID: 19287714
assimilation; energy partitioning; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode energy demand; photosynthesis; respiration; sugar; Vitis vinifiera
16.  Association of Verticillium chlamydosporium and Paecilomyces lilacinus with Root-knot Nematode Infested Soil 
Journal of Nematology  1990;22(2):207-213.
Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita and the nematophagous fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium, were determined in 20 northern California tomato fields over two growing seasons. Paecilomyces lilacinus was isolated from three fields, V. chlamydosporium was isolated from one field, and both fungi were isolated from 12 fields. Verticillium chlamydosporium numbers were positively correlated with numbers of M. incognita and P. lilacinus. Paecilomyces lilacinus numbers were positively correlated with V. chlamydosporium numbers, but they did not correlate with M. incognita numbers. The correlation coefficients were low (R < 0.5) but significant (P < 0.05). All P. lilacinus and V. chlamydosporium field isolates parasitized M. incognita eggs in vitro. In a greenhouse study, numbers of V. chlamydosporium and P. lilacinus increased more in soils with M. incognita-infected tomato plants than in soil with uninfected tomato plants. After 10 weeks, the Pf/ Pi of second-stage juveniles in soils infested with P. lilacinus, V. chlamydosporium, and M. incognita was 47.1 to 295.6. The results suggest V. chlamydosporium and P. lilacinus are not effectively suppressing populations of M. incognita in California tomato fields.
PMCID: PMC2619028  PMID: 19287711
biological control; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne incognita; Paecilomyces lilacinus; tomato; Verticillium chlamydosporium
17.  Meloidogyne incognita Survival in Soil Infested with Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium 
Journal of Nematology  1990;22(2):176-181.
Meloidogyne incognita-infected tomato seedlings were transplanted into sterilized soil or unsterilized soil collected from 20 California tomato fields to measure suppression caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticillium chlamydosporium, and other naturally occurring antagonists. Unsterilized soils Q, A, and H contained 35, 39, and 55% fewer M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) than did sterilized soil 1 month after infected tomato seedlings were transplanted to these soils and placed in a greenhouse. Three months after infected seedlings were transplanted to unsterilized or sterilized soil, unsterilized soils K, L, and Q had 97, 62, and 86% fewer J2 than the corresponding sterilized soils. Unsterilized soils of M. incognita-infected seedlings that were maintained 1 month in a greenhouse followed by 1 or 2 months of post-harvest incubation contained J2 numbers equal to, or greater than, numbers in the corresponding sterilized soil. The most suppressive of the unsterilized soils, K and Q, were not infested with V. chlamydosporium. Paecilomyces lilacinus and V. chlamydosporium increased in colony forming units in unsterilized soil of all bioassays, but they were not associated with lower numbers of J2.
PMCID: PMC2619027  PMID: 19287707
bioassay; biological control; Meloidogyne incognita; Paecilomyces lilacinus; Verticillium chlamydosporium
18.  Influence of Environmental Factors on the Hatch and Survival of Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1989;21(3):328-334.
The influence of soil temperature and moisture on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood was examined in relation to hatching and survival of second-stage juveniles (J2). Nematodes were cultured on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Acala SJ2) under field conditions to provide populations similar to those found in the field in late autumn. Egg masses were placed in a temperature range (9-12 C and 21 C), and hatch was measured over a period equivalent to 20 degree days > 10 C (DD10). Hatch occurred below the reported 18 C activity threshold, was restricted below 12 C, and was inhibited below 10 C. Soil moisture influence on hatch was measured by placing egg masses in Hesperia sandy loam and subjecting them to suction pressures ranging from -1.1 bars to -4 .5 bars. Suction potentials of less than -2 bars reduced hatch and less than -3 bars inhibited hatch. J2 were placed in sandy loam soil with soil moisture near field capacity, and their motility was measured over a period of 500 DD10. In the absence of a host, more than 90% of J2 became nonmotile over this period.
PMCID: PMC2618941  PMID: 19287616
cotton; cultural management; Gossypium hirsutum; hatch; Meloidogyne incognita; soil moisture; soil temperature; survival
19.  Overwintering Stages of Meloidogyne incognita in Vitis vinifera 
Journal of Nematology  1989;21(1):92-98.
The overwintering of Meloidogyne incognita in and around Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard roots was studied in a naturally infested vineyard at the Kearney Agricultural Center, in a growth chamber, in inoculated vines in microplots at the University of California, Davis, and in a greenhouse. Infected roots were sampled at intervals from onset of vine dormancy until plants accumulated about 800 degree days (DD - base 10 C). Embryogenesis within eggs, classified as less than or more than 16 cells and fully differentiated, and numbers of juveniles (second to fourth stage) and preovipositional and mature (egg-laying) adult stages in roots were determined. All stages were present at the onset of dormancy. Juveniles and immature females were not recovered during the dormant period. Mature females and eggs were always present in roots, although the number of mature females generally decreased with time after onset of dormancy. In contrast, in a greenhouse experiment that accumulated comparable DD without the host plant going through dormancy, the number of mature females increased. After bud break, the number of eggs per female increased and all nematode stages were found in host roots. Eggs in all stages of embryogenesis were observed at all times of sampling, indicating that females overwinter and are capable of laying eggs when conditions improve in the spring and need to be considered in nematode management decisions.
PMCID: PMC2618909  PMID: 19287581
degree days; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode management; overwintering; root-knot nematode; Vitis vinifera
20.  Impact of Meloidogyne incognita on Physiological Efficiency of Vitis vinifera 
Journal of Nematology  1989;21(1):74-80.
Four-week-old French Colombard plants rooted from green cuttings were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, or 8,000 Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles and maintained at 25 C night and 30 C day. Leaf area and dry weight and the rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and internal leaf CO₂ concentration were measured at intervals up to 59 days after inoculation. Nematode stress dosage, measured as the product of cumulative number of juveniles and females and their total energy (calories) demand, was up to 3.4 kcal and accounted for up to 15% of the energy assimilated by the plants. There was a decline in the rate of leaf area expansion and leaf, stem, shoot, root (excluding nematode weight), and total plant dry weight with increasing nematode stress. Root weight including nematodes was not affected. Total respiration, plant photosynthesis, energy assimilated into plant tissue and respiration, and gross production efficiency decreased significantly with nematode stress. Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO₂ concentration were not affected. This study demonstrates that the energy demand for growth and reproduction of M. incognita accounts for a significant portion of the total energy entering the plant system. As a result, less energy is partitioned into leaf area expansion which, in turn, affects the energy entering the system and results in decreased productivity of nematode-infected grape vines.
PMCID: PMC2618907  PMID: 19287578
assimilation; energy partitioning; leaf area expansion; nematode energy demand; Meloidogyne incognita; photosynthesis; respiration; Vitis vinifera
21.  Growth and Energy Demand of Meloidogyne incognita on Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars 
Journal of Nematology  1988;20(4):545-554.
Food (energy) consumption rates ofMeloidogyne incognita were calculated on Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard (highly susceptible) and cv. Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant). One-month-old grape seedlings in styrofoam cups were inoculated with 2,000 or 8,000 M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and maintained at 17.5 degree days (DD - base 10 C)/day until maximum adult female growth and (or) the end of oviposition. At 70 DD intervals, nematode fresh biomass was calculated on the basis of volumes of 15-20 nematodes per plant obtained with a digitizer and computer algorithm. Egg production was measured at 50-80 DD intervals by weighing 7-10 egg masses and counting the number of eggs. Nematode growth and food (energy) consumption rates were calculated up to 1,000 DD based on biomass increase, respiratory requirements, and an assumption of 60 % assimilation efficiency. The growth rate of a single root-knot nematode, excluding egg production, was similar in both cultivars and had a logistic form. The maximum fresh weight of a mature female nematode was ca. 29-32 μg. The total biomass increase, including egg production, also had a logistic form. Maximum biomass (mature adult female and egg mass) was 211 μg on French Colombard and 127 μg on Thompson Seedless. The calculated total cost to the host for the development of a single J2 from root penetration to the end of oviposition for body growth and total biomass was 0.535 and 0.486 calories with a total energy demand of 1.176 and 0.834 calories in French Colombard and Thompson Seedless, respectively.
PMCID: PMC2618851  PMID: 19290253
grape; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode energy demand; nematode growth; Vitis vinifera
22.  Stage-specific Population Development and Fecundity of Paratrichodorus minor 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(4):395-403.
A conceptual model of the life cycle of Paratrichodorus minor consisting of the egg stage, four juvenile stages, and the adult stage was proposed. Development of an individual from one stage to the next was described by a probability distribution defined by the mean length of time spent in the stage and the standard deviation associated with the mean duration. Experiments were conducted to estimate stage durations, stage-specific survivorships, and a fecundity rate for females. Eggs hatched on agar plates at a mean time of 53.3 ± 7.3 degree-days using a basal threshold of 10 C (DD₁₀) with a range of 40-64 DD₁₀ after deposition. Forty-five percent of the eggs observed ultimately hatched. Of the eggs that died, 44% died before the nematode form could be observed in the egg and 56% died after movement had been observed. First generation population peaks following inoculation with first-stage juveniles occurred at 28 DD₁₀ for second-stage juveniles, 67 DD₁₀ for third-stage juveniles, 109 DD₁₀ for fourth-stage juveniles, and 143 DD₁₀ for adults. Adult males are rare and were never observed in these studies. The fecundity rate was 0.784 eggs/(female-DD₁₀⁻¹), but the maximum length of the egg-laying period was not determined. The minimum egg-laying period was 73-113 DD₁₀, and minimum egg production was 57-86 eggs per female. The preovipositional period for adult females was estimated to be 79 DD₁₀. In the presence of a host, total population numbers increased, but in the absence of a host, the population declined to 33 % of the initial level after 300 DD₁₀.
PMCID: PMC2618661  PMID: 19290162
Paratrichodorus minor; population dynamics; fecundity
23.  Response of Soybean to Heterodera glycines Races 1 and 2 in Different Soil Types 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(2):240-250.
Experiments were conducted for 3 years at four locations and 1 year with six soil types at a common location in North Carolina to determine damage and control-cost functions for Heterodera glycines races 1 and 2 on soybean. In the experiments on native loamy sand and sandy soils, tolerance limits for initial population densities were 0 or very low, whereas in a muck, the tolerance limit was 315 eggs/500 cm³ soil. The aggressive race 2 was more damaging than race 1 in Lakeland sand and Norfolk loamy sand. The crop response was not different between races in the Appling sandy clay loam and Belhaven muck. Soybean yield responses to H. glycines were linear in six soil types in microplots at a common site. The amount of damage varied among these soil types, with lowest yields in the muck because of severe drought stress in this soil. An exponential function adequately described soybean yield response relative to nematode control with increasing rates of aldicarb in Norfolk loamy sand. Treatment with aldicarb in the Lakeland sand decreased the effective egg population of H. glycines but had only a minor effect in the muck.
PMCID: PMC2618624  PMID: 19290136
aldicarb; chemical control; control-cost function; damage function; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; soybean; soybean cyst nematode; damage threshold
24.  Nematode-Degree Days, a Density-Time Model for Relating Epidemiology and Crop Losses in Perennials 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(1):108-118.
The impact of Meloidogyne hapla on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) yield was described by a multiple point damage model as a function of current plant status, cumulative pest stress, and crop history. Nematode-degree days (NDD♀), calculated on a physiologic time scale as total area under the adult female population density curve, were used to express M. hapla parasitism as cumulative nematode dosage. NDD♀ increased exponentially over physiological time at rates relative to M. hapla initial population density of eggs and second-stage juveniles (Pi). Dosage accumulation rates, varying from 213 to 272 NDD♀ per degree day, did not differ (P = 0.05) among six Pi levels. Cumulative yield reductions, increasing linearly with NDD♀ over time to 50% of the M. hapla-free controls, were well correlated for the six initial Pi levels (r² = 0.93). Progressive reductions in alfalfa yields to 65% of the nematode-free controls, reflective of the prolonged exposure of the crop to M. hapla, were adequately described by NDD model estimates of either combined population densities of eggs and juveniles or adult females. Cumulative area under the combined eggs (e) and juvenile (J) population curve (NDDe+J) and NDD♀ were linearly related (r² = 0.97).
PMCID: PMC2618601  PMID: 19290114
root-knot nematode; damage function; multiple point model; crop loss assessment; alfalfa; Medicago sativa; Meloidogyne hapla
25.  Influence of Alfalfa Plant Growth on the Multiplication Rates and Ceiling Population Density of Meloidogyne hapla 
Journal of Nematology  1986;18(4):505-511.
The rates of reproduction and multiplication of Meloidogyne hapla decreased as a result of self-regulatory, density-dependent processes with time and nematode population increase in the soil and roots of Medicago sativa cv. Cuf 101. Juvenile, egg, and mature female population densities increased at a maximum rate until damage to the host resulted in alfalfa yield reductions. Temporal differences in multiplication and reproduction rates of M. hapla were observed to be a function of initial population density (Pi), host damage, and root biomass, indicating increased levels of competition for a constant but limited number of feeding sites. Over time, a log linear relationship emerged between multiplication rate of M. hapla and Pi. Slopes of -0.90953 for combined eggs and juveniles and -0.71349 for mature females indicated a gradual approach to ceiling densities. Reproductive rates decreased exponentially from an initial maximal value of 200 to a relatively constant rate of 53 eggs per female.
PMCID: PMC2618574  PMID: 19294220
density dependence; intraspecific competition; reproduction; population dynamics; root-knot nematode; Medicago sativa

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