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1.  Xanthine Functionalized Congeners as Potent Ligands at A2-Adenosine Receptors†,‡ 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1987;30(1):211-214.
Amide derivatives of a carboxylic acid congener of 1,3-dialkylxanthine, having a 4-[(carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl substituent at the 8-position, have been synthesized in order to identify potent antagonists at A2-adenosine receptors stimulatory to adenylate cyclase in platelets. Distal structural features of amide-linked chains and the size of the 1,3-dialkyl groups have been varied. 1,3-Diethyl groups, more than 1,3-dimethyl or 1,3-dipropyl groups, favor A2 potency, even in the presence of extended chains attached at the 8-(p-substituted-phenyl) position. Polar groups, such as amines, on the chain simultaneously enhance water solubility and A2 potency. Among the most potent A2 ligands are an amine congener, 8-[4-[[[[(2-aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]oxy]phenyl]-1,3-diethylxanthine, and its D-lysyl conjugate, which have KB values of 21 and 23 nM, respectively, for the antagonism of N-ethyl-adenosine-5′-uronamide-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in human platelet membranes. Strategies for the selection and tritiation of new radioligands for use in competitive binding assays at A2-adenosine receptors have been considered.
PMCID: PMC3433718  PMID: 3806597
2.  Binary Drugs: Conjugates of Purines and a Peptide That Bind to Both Adenosine and Substance P Receptors 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1987;30(8):1529-1532.
A “functionalized congener” approach to adenosine receptor antagonists has provided a means to synthesize highly potent peptide conjugates of 1,3-dialkylxanthines. The antagonist XAC, such a functionalized xanthine amine congener, has been attached to a segment derived from the neurotransmitter peptide substance P (SP) to form a binary drug that binds to both receptors with Ki values of 35 nM (central A1-adenosine) and 300 nM (striatal SP). Coupling of the functionalized adenosine agonist N6-[p-(carboxymethyl)phenyl]adenosine to an SP C-terminal peptide also resulted in a binary drug that binds to both receptors. The demonstration that the biochemical properties of two unrelated drugs, both of which act through binding at extracellular receptors, may be combined in the same molecule suggests a novel strategy for drug design. In principle, a combined effect of the two different substances that produce the same final effect (e.g., hypotension by adenosine agonists and by SP analogues) might occur in vivo. Adenosine analogues have analgesic properties, and the binary drug derived from substance P and adenosine agonists or antagonists might provide useful tools for probing interrelationships of SP pathways and sites for the antinociceptive action of adenosine.
PMCID: PMC3413949  PMID: 2441057

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