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1.  Adenine Nucleotide Analogues Locked in a Northern Methanocarba Conformation: Enhanced Stability and Potency as P2Y1 Receptor Agonists 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2002;45(10):2090-2100.
Preference for the Northern (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of nucleotide 5′-triphosphate agonists at P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y11 receptors, but not P2Y6 receptors, was established using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a 3.1.0-bicyclohexane) ring as a ribose substitute (Kim et al. J. Med. Chem. 2002, 45, 208–218.). We have now combined the ring-constrained (N)-methanocarba modification of adenine nucleotides with other functionalities known to enhance potency at P2 receptors. The potency of the newly synthesized analogues was determined in the stimulation of phospholipase C through activation of turkey erythrocyte P2Y1 or human P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors stably expressed in astrocytoma cells. An (N)-methanocarba-2-methylthio-ADP analogue displayed an EC50 at the hP2Y1 receptor of 0.40 nM and was 55-fold more potent than the corresponding triphosphate and 16-fold more potent than the riboside 5′-diphosphate. 2-Cl–(N)-methanocarba-ATP and its N6-Me analogue were also highly selective, full agonists at P2Y1 receptors. The (N)-methanocarba-2-methylthio and 2-chloromonophosphate analogues were full agonists exhibiting micromolar potency at P2Y1 receptors, while the corresponding ribosides were inactive. Although β,γ-methylene-ATP was inactive at P2Y receptors, β,γ-methylene-(N)-methanocarba-ATP was a potent hP2Y1 receptor agonist with an EC50 of 160 nM and was selective versus hP2Y2 and hP2Y4 receptors. The rates of hydrolysis of Northern (N) and Southern (S) methanocarba analogues of AMP by rat 5′-ectonucleotidase were negligible. The rates of hydrolysis of the corresponding triphosphates by recombinant rat NTPDase1 and 2 were studied. Both isomers were hydrolyzed by NTPDase 1 at about half the rate of ATP hydrolysis. The (N) isomer was hardly hydrolyzed by NTPDase 2, while the (S) isomer was hydrolyzed at one-third of the rate of ATP hydrolysis. This suggests that new, more stable and selective nucleotide agonists may be designed on the basis of the (N)-conformation, which greatly enhanced potency at P2Y1 receptors.
PMCID: PMC4959107  PMID: 11985476
2.  Methanocarba Modification of Uracil and Adenine Nucleotides: High Potency of Northern Ring Conformation at P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y11 but Not P2Y6 Receptors 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2002;45(1):208-218.
The potency of nucleotide antagonists at P2Y1 receptors was enhanced by replacing the ribose moiety with a constrained carbocyclic ring (Nandanan, et al. J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 829—842). We have now synthesized ring-constrained methanocarba analogues (in which a fused cyclopropane moiety constrains the pseudosugar ring) of adenine and uracil nucleotides, the endogenous activators of P2Y receptors. Methanocarba-adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) was fixed in either a Northern (N) or a Southern (S) conformation, as defined in the pseudorotational cycle. (N)-Methanocarba-uridine was prepared from the 1-amino-pseudosugar ring by treatment with β-ethoxyacryloyl cyanate and cyclization to form the uracil ring. Phosphorylation was carried out at the 5′-hydroxyl group through a multistep process: Reaction with phosphoramidite followed by oxidation provided the 5′-monophosphates, which then were treated with 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole for condensation with additional phosphate groups. The ability of the analogues to stimulate phospholipase C through activation of turkey P2Y1 or human P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, and P2Y11 receptors stably expressed in astrocytoma cells was measured. At recombinant human P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors, (N)-methanocarba-ATP was 138- and 41-fold, respectively, more potent than racemic (S)-methanocarba-ATP as an agonist. (N)-methanocarba-ATP activated P2Y11 receptors with a potency similar to ATP. (N)-Methanocarba-uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP) was equipotent to UTP as an agonist at human P2Y2 receptors and also activated P2Y4 receptors with an EC50 of 85 nM. (N)-Methanocarba-uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP) was inactive at the hP2Y6 receptor. The vascular effects of (N)-methanocarba-UTP and (N)-methanocarba-UDP were studied in a model of the rat mesenteric artery. The triphosphate was more potent than UTP in inducing a dilatory P2Y4 response (pEC50 = 6.1 ± 0.2), while the diphosphate was inactive as either an agonist or antagonist in a P2Y6 receptor-mediated contractile response. Our results suggest that new nucleotide agonists may be designed on the basis of the (N) conformation that favors selectivity for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y11 receptors.
PMCID: PMC4957029  PMID: 11754592
3.  4D-QSAR Analysis of a Set of Propofol Analogues: Mapping Binding Sites for an Anesthetic Phenol on the GABAA Receptor 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2002;45(15):3210-3221.
A training set of 27 propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) analogues was used to construct four-dimensional (4D) quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models for three screens of biological activity: loss of righting reflex (LORR) in tadpoles, enhancement of agonist activity at the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, and direct (agonist-independent) activation of the receptor. The three resulting 4D-QSAR models are almost identical in form, and all suggest three key ligand–receptor interaction sites. The formation of an intermolecular hydrogen bond involving the proton of the ligand–OH group is the most important binding interaction. A hydrophobic pocket binding interaction involving the six-substituent is the second most significant binding site, and a similar hydrophobic pocket binding interaction near the two-substituent is the third postulated binding site from the 4D-QSAR models. A test set of eight compounds was used to evaluate the tadpole LORR 4D-QSAR model. Those compounds highly congeneric to the training set compounds were accurately predicted. However, compounds exploring substituent sites and/or electronic structures different from the training set were less well-predicted. Overall, the results show a striking similarity between the models of the sites responsible for anesthesia and those mediating effects of the training set of propofol analogues on the GABAA receptor; it follows that the GABAA receptor is therefore the likely site of propofol’s anesthetic action.
PMCID: PMC2864546  PMID: 12109905

Results 1-3 (3)