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2.  Optimized Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Improve in Vitro Target Residence Time and in Vivo Efficacy 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(16):7016-7030.
Diabetes is affecting the life of millions of people. A large proportion of diabetic patients suffer from severe complications such as neuropathic pain, and current treatments for these complications have deleterious side effects. Thus, alternate therapeutic strategies are needed. Recently, the elevation of epoxy-fatty acids through inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) was shown to reduce diabetic neuropathic pain in rodents. In this report, we describe a series of newly synthesized sEH inhibitors with at least 5-fold higher potency and doubled residence time inside both the human and rodent sEH enzyme than previously reported inhibitors. These inhibitors also have better physical properties and optimized pharmacokinetic profiles. The optimized inhibitor selected from this new series displayed improved efficacy of almost 10-fold in relieving pain perception in diabetic neuropathic rats as compared to the approved drug, gabapentin, and previously published sEH inhibitors. Therefore, these new sEH inhibitors could be an attractive alternative to treat diabetic neuropathy in humans.
PMCID: PMC4148150  PMID: 25079952
3.  UNC2025, a Potent and Orally Bioavailable MER/FLT3 Dual Inhibitor 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(16):7031-7041.
We previously reported a potent small molecule Mer tyrosine kinase inhibitor UNC1062. However, its poor PK properties prevented further assessment in vivo. We report here the sequential modification of UNC1062 to address DMPK properties and yield a new potent and highly orally bioavailable Mer inhibitor, 11, capable of inhibiting Mer phosphorylation in vivo, following oral dosing as demonstrated by pharmaco-dynamic (PD) studies examining phospho-Mer in leukemic blasts from mouse bone marrow. Kinome profiling versus more than 300 kinases in vitro and cellular selectivity assessments demonstrate that 11 has similar subnanomolar activity against Flt3, an additional important target in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), with pharmacologically useful selectivity versus other kinases examined.
PMCID: PMC4148167  PMID: 25068800
4.  Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of Pteridine Dione and Trione Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 Inhibitors 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(17):7317-7324.
Novel substituted pteridine-derived inhibitors of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), an emerging target for cancer therapy, are reported. The activity of these compounds as inhibitors of lactate transport was confirmed using a 14C-lactate transport assay, and their potency against MCT1-expressing human tumor cells was established using MTT assays. The four most potent compounds showed substantial anticancer activity (EC50 37–150 nM) vs MCT1-expressing human Raji lymphoma cells.
PMCID: PMC4161152  PMID: 25068893
5.  An Allosteric Modulator of HIV-1 Protease Shows Equipotent Inhibition of Wild-Type and Drug-Resistant Proteases 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(15):6468-6478.
NMR and MD simulations have demonstrated that the flaps of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1p) adopt a range of conformations that are coupled with its enzymatic activity. Previously, a model was created for an allosteric site located between the flap and the core of HIV-1p, called the Eye site (Biopolymers2008, 89, 643−65218381626). Here, results from our first study were combined with a ligand-based, lead-hopping method to identify a novel compound (NIT). NIT inhibits HIV-1p, independent of the presence of an active-site inhibitor such as pepstatin A. Assays showed that NIT acts on an allosteric site other than the dimerization interface. MD simulations of the ligand–protein complex show that NIT stably binds in the Eye site and restricts the flaps. That bound state of NIT is consistent with a crystal structure of similar fragments bound in the Eye site (Chem. Biol. Drug Des.2010, 75, 257−26820659109). Most importantly, NIT is equally potent against wild-type and a multidrug-resistant mutant of HIV-1p, which highlights the promise of allosteric inhibitors circumventing existing clinical resistance.
PMCID: PMC4136727  PMID: 25062388
6.  Structural Basis for Rational Design of Inhibitors Targeting Trypanosoma cruzi Sterol 14α-Demethylase: Two Regions of the Enzyme Molecule Potentiate Its Inhibition 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(15):6704-6717.
Chagas disease, which was once thought to be confined to endemic regions of Latin America, has now gone global, becoming a new worldwide challenge with no cure available. The disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which depends on the production of endogenous sterols, and therefore can be blocked by sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) inhibitors. Here we explore the spectral binding parameters, inhibitory effects on T. cruzi CYP51 activity, and antiparasitic potencies of a new set of β-phenyl imidazoles. Comparative structural characterization of the T. cruzi CYP51 complexes with the three most potent inhibitors reveals two opposite binding modes of the compounds ((R)-6, EC50 = 1.2 nM, vs (S)-2/(S)-3, EC50 = 1.0/5.5 nM) and suggests the entrance into the CYP51 substrate access channel and the heme propionate-supporting ceiling of the binding cavity as two distinct areas of the protein that enhance molecular recognition and therefore could be used for the development of more effective antiparasitic drugs.
PMCID: PMC4136671  PMID: 25033013
7.  Discovery of a Selective, Substrate-Competitive Inhibitor of the Lysine Methyltransferase SETD8 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(15):6822-6833.
The lysine methyltransferase SETD8 is the only known methyltransferase that catalyzes monomethylation of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20). Monomethylation of H4K20 has been implicated in regulating diverse biological processes including the DNA damage response. In addition to H4K20, SETD8 monomethylates non-histone substrates including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and promotes carcinogenesis by deregulating PCNA expression. However, selective inhibitors of SETD8 are scarce. The only known selective inhibitor of SETD8 to date is nahuoic acid A, a marine natural product, which is competitive with the cofactor. Here, we report the discovery of the first substrate-competitive inhibitor of SETD8, UNC0379 (1). This small-molecule inhibitor is active in multiple biochemical assays. Its affinity to SETD8 was confirmed by ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) and SPR (surface plasmon resonance) studies. Importantly, compound 1 is selective for SETD8 over 15 other methyltransferases. We also describe structure–activity relationships (SAR) of this series.
PMCID: PMC4136711  PMID: 25032507
8.  Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2) 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;58(1):183-196.
We developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16 and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. A 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC4292808  PMID: 25075558
9.  10-Iodo-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic Acids Are Selective Inhibitors of DYRK1A 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2015;58(7):3131-3143.
The protein kinase DYRK1A has been suggested to act as one of the intracellular regulators contributing to neurological alterations found in individuals with Down syndrome. For an assessment of the role of DYRK1A, selective synthetic inhibitors are valuable pharmacological tools. However, the DYRK1A inhibitors described in the literature so far either are not sufficiently selective or have not been tested against closely related kinases from the DYRK and the CLK protein kinase families. The aim of this study was the identification of DYRK1A inhibitors exhibiting selectivity versus the structurally and functionally closely related DYRK and CLK isoforms. Structure modification of the screening hit 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid revealed structure–activity relationships for kinase inhibition and enabled the design of 10-iodo-substituted derivatives as very potent DYRK1A inhibitors with considerable selectivity against CLKs. X-ray structure determination of three 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids cocrystallized with DYRK1A confirmed the predicted binding mode within the ATP binding site.
PMCID: PMC4506206  PMID: 25730262
10.  Constrained Bithiazoles: Small Molecule Correctors of Defective ΔF508–CFTR Protein Trafficking 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(15):6729-6738.
Conformationally constrained bithiazoles were previously found to have improved efficacy over nonconstrained bithiazoles for correction of defective cellular processing of the ΔF508 mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. In this study, two sets of constrained bithiazoles were designed, synthesized, and tested in vitro using ΔF508–CFTR expressing epithelial cells. The SAR data demonstrated that modulating the constraining ring size between 7- versus 8-membered in these constrained bithiazole correctors did not significantly enhance their potency (IC50), but strongly affected maximum efficacy (Vmax), with constrained bithiazoles 9e and 10c increasing Vmax by 1.5-fold compared to benchmark bithiazole corr4a. The data suggest that the 7- and 8-membered constrained ring bithiazoles are similar in their ability to accommodate the requisite geometric constraints during protein binding.
PMCID: PMC4136667  PMID: 25061695
11.  Synthesis and in Vitro Evaluation of BBB Permeability, Tumor Cell Uptake, and Cytotoxicity of a Series of Carboranylporphyrin Conjugates 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(15):6718-6728.
A series of tri[(p-carboranylmethylthio)tetrafluorophenyl]porphyrin conjugates of linear and branched polyamines, glucose, arginine, tri(ethylene glycol), and Tyr-d-Arg-Phe-β-Ala (YRFA) peptide were synthesized. These conjugates were investigated for their BBB permeability in human hCMEC/D3 brain endothelial cells, and their cytotoxicity and uptake were assessed using human glioma T98G cells. For comparison purposes, a symmetric tetra[(p-carboranylmethylthio)tetrafluorophenyl]porphyrin was also synthesized, and its crystal structure was obtained. All porphyrin conjugates show low dark cytotoxicity (IC50 > 400 μM) and low phototoxicity (IC50 > 100 μM at 1.5 J/cm2) toward T98G cells. All conjugates were efficiently taken up by T98G cells, particularly the cationic polyamine and arginine conjugates, and were localized in multiple cellular organelles, including mitochondria and lysosomes. All compounds showed relatively low in vitro BBB permeability compared with that of lucifer yellow because of their higher molecular weight, hydrophobicity, and tendency for aggregation in solution. Within this series, the branched polyamine and YRFA conjugates showed the highest permeability coefficient, whereas the glucose conjugate showed the lowest permeability coefficient.
PMCID: PMC4136688  PMID: 25029034
12.  Design and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Structure Determination of the Second Extracellular Immunoglobulin Tyrosine Kinase A (TrkAIg2) Domain Construct for Binding Site Elucidation in Drug Discovery 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;58(2):767-777.
The tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor is a validated therapeutic intervention point for a wide range of conditions. TrkA activation by nerve growth factor (NGF) binding the second extracellular immunoglobulin (TrkAIg2) domain triggers intracellular signaling cascades. In the periphery, this promotes the pain phenotype and, in the brain, cell survival or differentiation. Reproducible structural information and detailed validation of protein–ligand interactions aid drug discovery. However, the isolated TrkAIg2 domain crystallizes as a β-strand-swapped dimer in the absence of NGF, occluding the binding surface. Here we report the design and structural validation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the first stable, biologically active construct of the TrkAIg2 domain for binding site confirmation. Our structure closely mimics the wild-type fold of TrkAIg2 in complex with NGF (1WWW.pdb), and the 1H–15N correlation spectra confirm that both NGF and a competing small molecule interact at the known binding interface in solution.
PMCID: PMC4504729  PMID: 25454499
13.  Clostridium difficile Drug Pipeline: Challenges in Discovery and Development of New Agents 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2015;58(13):5164-5185.
In the past decade Clostridium difficile has become a bacterial pathogen of global significance. Epidemic strains have spread throughout hospitals, while community acquired infections and other sources ensure a constant inoculation of spores into hospitals. In response to the increasing medical burden, a new C. difficile antibiotic, fidaxomicin, was approved in 2011 for the treatment of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. Rudimentary fecal transplants are also being trialed as effective treatments. Despite these advances, therapies that are more effective against C. difficile spores and less damaging to the resident gastrointestinal microbiome and that reduce recurrent disease are still desperately needed. However, bringing a new treatment for C. difficile infection to market involves particular challenges. This review covers the current drug discovery pipeline, including both small molecule and biologic therapies, and highlights the challenges associated with in vitro and in vivo models of C. difficile infection for drug screening and lead optimization.
PMCID: PMC4500462  PMID: 25760275
14.  Modification and Biological Evaluation of Thiazole Derivatives as Novel Inhibitors of Metastatic Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(15):6653-6667.
Fascin has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target, as its expression in cancer cells is closely associated with tumor progression and metastasis. Following the initial discovery of a series of thiazole derivatives that demonstrated potent antimigration and antiinvasion activities via possible inhibition of fascin function, we report here the design and synthesis of 63 new thiazole derivatives by further structural modifications in search of more potent fascin inhibitors. The 5 series of analogues with longer alkyl chain substitutions on the thiazole nitrogen exhibited greater antimigration activities than those with other structural motifs. The most potent analogue, 5p, inhibited 50% of cell migration at 24 nM. Moreover, the thiazole analogues showed strong antiangiogenesis activity, blocking new blood vessel formation in a chicken embryo membrane assay. Finally, a functional study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of action via interaction with the F-actin bundling protein fascin.
PMCID: PMC4136724  PMID: 25007006
15.  Design, Synthesis, Mechanisms of Action, and Toxicity of Novel 20(S)-Sulfonylamidine Derivatives of Camptothecin as Potent Antitumor Agents 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(14):6008-6018.
Twelve novel 20-sulfonylamidine derivatives (9a–9l) of camptothecin (1) were synthesized via a Cu-catalyzed three-component reaction. They showed similar or superior cytotoxicity compared with that of irinotecan (3) against A-549, DU-145, KB, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) KBvin tumor cell lines. Compound 9a demonstrated better cytotoxicity against MDR cells compared with that of 1 and 3. Mechanistically, 9a induced significant DNA damage by selectively inhibiting Topoisomerase (Topo) I and activating the ATM/Chk related DNA damage-response pathway. In xenograft models, 9a demonstrated significant activity without overt adverse effects at 5 and 10 mg/kg, comparable to 3 at 100 mg/kg. Notably, 9a at 300 mg/kg (i.p.) showed no overt toxicity in contrast to 1 (LD50 56.2 mg/kg, i.p.) and 3 (LD50 177.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Intact 9a inhibited Topo I activity in a cell-free assay in a manner similar to that of 1, confirming that 9a is a new class of Topo I inhibitor. 20-Sulfonylamidine 1-derivative 9a merits development as an anticancer clinical trial candidate.
PMCID: PMC4111373  PMID: 25003995
16.  Substituted N-(Biphenyl-4′-yl)methyl (R)-2-Acetamido-3-methoxypropionamides: Potent Anticonvulsants That Affect Frequency (Use) Dependence and Slow Inactivation of Sodium Channels 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(14):6165-6182.
We prepared 13 derivatives of N-(biphenyl-4′-yl)methyl (R)-2-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide that differed in type and placement of a R-substituent in the terminal aryl unit. We demonstrated that the R-substituent impacted the compound’s whole animal and cellular pharmacological activities. In rodents, select compounds exhibited excellent anticonvulsant activities and protective indices (PI = TD50/ED50) that compared favorably with clinical antiseizure drugs. Compounds with a polar, aprotic R-substituent potently promoted Na+ channel slow inactivation and displayed frequency (use) inhibition of Na+ currents at low micromolar concentrations. The possible advantage of affecting these two pathways to decrease neurological hyperexcitability is discussed.
PMCID: PMC4111400  PMID: 25004277
17.  Therapeutic Potential of Targeting the Oncogenic SHP2 Phosphatase 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(15):6594-6609.
The Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is an oncogenic phosphatase associated with various kinds of leukemia and solid tumors. Thus, there is substantial interest in developing SHP2 inhibitors as potential anticancer and antileukemia agents. Using a structure-guided and fragment-based library approach, we identified a novel hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based SHP2 inhibitor 11a-1, with an IC50 value of 200 nM and greater than 5-fold selectivity against 20 mammalian PTPs. Structural and modeling studies reveal that the hydroxyindole carboxylic acid anchors the inhibitor to the SHP2 active site, while interactions of the oxalamide linker and the phenylthiophene tail with residues in the β5–β6 loop contribute to 11a-1’s binding potency and selectivity. Evidence suggests that 11a-1 specifically attenuates the SHP2-dependent signaling inside the cell. Moreover, 11a-1 blocks growth factor mediated Erk1/2 and Akt activation and exhibits excellent antiproliferative activity in lung cancer and breast cancer as well as leukemia cell lines.
PMCID: PMC4136714  PMID: 25003231
18.  Identification of a Potent Inhibitor of CREB-Mediated Gene Transcription with Efficacious in Vivo Anticancer Activity 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2015;58(12):5075-5087.
Recent studies have shown that nuclear transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) is overexpressed in many different types of cancers. Therefore, CREB has been pursued as a novel cancer therapeutic target. Naphthol AS-E and its closely related derivatives have been shown to inhibit CREB-mediated gene transcription and cancer cell growth. Previously, we identified naphthamide 3a as a different chemotype to inhibit CREB’s transcription activity. In a continuing effort to discover more potent CREB inhibitors, a series of structural congeners of 3a was designed and synthesized. Biological evaluations of these compounds uncovered compound 3i (666-15) as a potent and selective inhibitor of CREB-mediated gene transcription (IC50 = 0.081 ± 0.04 μM). 666-15 also potently inhibited cancer cell growth without harming normal cells. In an in vivo MDA-MB-468 xenograft model, 666-15 completely suppressed the tumor growth without overt toxicity. These results further support the potential of CREB as a valuable cancer drug target.
PMCID: PMC4493896  PMID: 26023867
19.  Brain-Penetrant, Orally Bioavailable Microtubule-Stabilizing Small Molecules Are Potential Candidate Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Tauopathies 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(14):6116-6127.
Microtubule (MT) stabilizing drugs hold promise as potential treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. However, thus far epothilone D has been the only brain-penetrant MT-stabilizer to be evaluated in tau transgenic mice and in AD patients. Furthermore, this natural product exhibits potential deficiencies as a drug candidate, including an intravenous route of administration and the inhibition of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter. Thus, the identification of alternative CNS-active MT-stabilizing agents that lack these potential limitations is of interest. Toward this objective, we have evaluated representative compounds from known classes of non-naturally occurring MT-stabilizing small molecules. This led to the identification of selected triazolopyrimidines and phenylpyrimidines that are orally bioavailable and brain-penetrant without disruption of Pgp function. Pharmacodynamic studies confirmed that representative compounds from these series enhance MT-stabilization in the brains of wild-type mice. Thus, these classes of MT-stabilizers hold promise for the development of orally active, CNS-directed MT-stabilizing therapies.
PMCID: PMC4111403  PMID: 24992153
20.  64Cu-Labeled Somatostatin Analogues Conjugated with Cross-Bridged Phosphonate-Based Chelators via Strain-Promoted Click Chemistry for PET Imaging: In silico through in Vivo Studies 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(14):6019-6029.
Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sstr2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is overexpressed in neuroendocrine tumors. The homology model of sstr2 was built and was used to aid the design of new somatostatin analogues modified with phosphonate-containing cross-bridged chelators for evaluation of using them as PET imaging radiopharmaceuticals. The new generation chelators were conjugated to Tyr3-octreotate (Y3-TATE) through bioorthogonal, strain-promoted alkyne azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) to form CB-TE1A1P–DBCO–Y3-TATE (AP) and CB-TE1K1P–PEG4–DBCO–Y3-TATE (KP) in improved yields compared to standard direct conjugation methods of amide bond formation. Consistent with docking studies, the clicked bioconjugates showed high binding affinities to sstr2, with Kd values ranging from 0.6 to 2.3 nM. Selected isomers of the clicked products were used in biodistribution and PET/CT imaging. Introduction of the bulky dibenzocyclooctyne group in AP decreased clearance rates from circulation. However, the additional carboxylate group and PEG linker from the KP conjugate significantly improved labeling conditions and in vivo stability of the copper complex and ameliorated the slower pharmacokinetics of the clicked somatostatin analogues.
PMCID: PMC4261236  PMID: 24983404
21.  Putative Kappa Opioid Heteromers As Targets for Developing Analgesics Free of Adverse Effects 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(15):6383-6392.
It is now generally recognized that upon activation by an agonist, β-arrestin associates with G protein-coupled receptors and acts as a scaffold in creating a diverse signaling network that could lead to adverse effects. As an approach to reducing side effects associated with κ opioid agonists, a series of β-naltrexamides 3–10 was synthesized in an effort to selectively target putative κ opioid heteromers without recruiting β-arrestin upon activation. The most potent derivative 3 (INTA) strongly activated KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers in HEK293 cells. In vivo studies revealed 3 to produce potent antinociception, which, when taken together with antagonism data, was consistent with the activation of both heteromers. 3 was devoid of tolerance, dependence, and showed no aversive effect in the conditioned place preference assay. As immunofluorescence studies indicated no recruitment of β-arrestin2 to membranes in coexpressed KOR-DOR cells, this study suggests that targeting of specific putative heteromers has the potential to identify leads for analgesics devoid of adverse effects.
PMCID: PMC4136663  PMID: 24978316
22.  KDM4B as a Target for Prostate Cancer: Structural Analysis and Selective Inhibition by a Novel Inhibitor 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(14):5975-5985.
The KDM4/JMJD2 Jumonji C-containing histone lysine demethylases (KDM4A–KDM4D), which selectively remove the methyl group(s) from tri/dimethylated lysine 9/36 of H3, modulate transcriptional activation and genome stability. The overexpression of KDM4A/KDM4B in prostate cancer and their association with androgen receptor suggest that KDM4A/KDM4B are potential progression factors for prostate cancer. Here, we report the crystal structure of the KDM4B·pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylic acid·H3K9me3 ternary complex, revealing the core active-site region and a selective K9/K36 site. A selective KDM4A/KDM4B inhibitor, 4, that occupies three subsites in the binding pocket is identified by virtual screening. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of KDM4A/KDM4B significantly blocks the viability of cultured prostate cancer cells, which is accompanied by increased H3K9me3 staining and transcriptional silencing of growth-related genes. Significantly, a substantial portion of differentially expressed genes are AR-responsive, consistent with the roles of KDM4s as critical AR activators. Our results point to KDM4 as a useful therapeutic target and identify a new inhibitor scaffold.
PMCID: PMC4216216  PMID: 24971742
23.  Synthesis and Evaluation of Bisbenzylidenedioxotetrahydrothiopranones as Activators of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Signaling Pathways and Apoptotic Cell Death in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemic Cells 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(14):5904-5918.
Curcumin is known to trigger ER-stress induced cell death of acute promyelocytic leukemic (APL) cells by intercepting the degradation of nuclear co-repressor (N-CoR) protein which has a key role in the pathogenesis of APL. Replacing the heptadienedione moiety of curcumin with a monocarbonyl cross-conjugated dienone embedded in a tetrahydrothiopyranone dioxide ring resulted in thiopyranone dioxides that were more resilient to hydrolysis and had greater growth inhibitory activities than curcumin on APL cells. Several members intercepted the degradation of misfolded N-CoR and triggered the signaling cascade in the unfolded protein response (UPR) which led to apoptotic cell death. Microarray analysis showed that genes involved in protein processing pathways that were germane to the activation of the UPR were preferentially up-regulated in treated APL cells, supporting the notion that the UPR was a consequential mechanistic pathway affected by thiopyranone dioxides. The Michael acceptor reactivity of the scaffold may have a role in exacerbating ER stress in APL cells.
PMCID: PMC4216202  PMID: 24960549
24.  Synthetic Reactions with Rare Taccalonolides Reveal the Value of C-22,23 Epoxidation for Microtubule Stabilizing Potency 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(14):6141-6149.
The taccalonolides are microtubule stabilizers isolated from plants of the genus Tacca. Taccalonolide AF is 231 times more potent than the major metabolite taccalonolide A and differs only by the oxidation of the C-22,23 double bond in A to an epoxy group in AF. In the current study, 10 other rare natural taccalonolides were epoxidized and in each case epoxidation improved potency. The epoxidation products of taccalonolide T and AI were the most potent, with IC50 values of 0.43 and 0.88 nM, respectively. These potent taccalonolides retained microtubule stabilizing effects, and T-epoxide demonstrated antitumor effects in a xenograft model of breast cancer. Additional reactions demonstrated that reduction of the C-6 ketone resulted in an inactive taccalonolide and that C-22,23 epoxidation restored its activity. These studies confirm the value of C-22,23 epoxidation as an effective strategy for increasing the potency of a wide range of structurally diverse taccalonolide microtubule stabilizers.
PMCID: PMC4216226  PMID: 24959756
25.  2′,6′-Dihalostyrylanilines, Pyridines, and Pyrimidines for the Inhibition of the Catalytic Subunit of Methionine S-Adenosyltransferase-2 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(14):6083-6091.
Inhibition of the catalytic subunit of the heterodimeric methionine S-adenosyl transferase-2 (MAT2A) with fluorinated N,N-dialkylaminostilbenes (FIDAS agents) offers a potential avenue for the treatment of liver and colorectal cancers where upregulation of this enzyme occurs. A study of structure–activity relationships led to the identification of the most active compounds as those with (1) either a 2,6-difluorostyryl or 2-chloro-6-fluorostyryl subunit, (2) either an N-methylamino or N,N-dimethylamino group attached in a para orientation relative to the 2,6-dihalostyryl subunit, and (3) either an N-methylaniline or a 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine ring. These modifications led to FIDAS agents that were active in the low nanomolar range, that formed water-soluble hydrochloride salts, and that possessed the desired property of not inhibiting the human hERG potassium ion channel at concentrations at which the FIDAS agents inhibit MAT2A. The active FIDAS agents may inhibit cancer cells through alterations of methylation reactions essential for cancer cell survival and growth.
PMCID: PMC4111374  PMID: 24950374

Results 1-25 (399)