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1.  Comparison of Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Tau and Aß1-42 in Alzheimer’s disease and Frontotemporal Degeneration Using Two Analytical Platforms 
Archives of neurology  2012;69(8):1018-1025.
Objective
To utilize values of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and ß-amyloid obtained from two different analytical immunoassays to differentiate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).
Design
CSF values of total tau (t-tau) and ß-amyloid (Aß1-42) obtained using the INNOTEST® ELISA were transformed using a linear regression model to equivalent values obtained using the INNO-BIA AlzBio3™ (xMAP Luminex) assay. Cutoff values obtained from the xMAP assay were developed in a series of autopsy-confirmed cases and cross-validated in another series of autopsy-confirmed samples using transformed ELISA values to assess sensitivity and specificity for differentiating AD from FTLD.
Setting
Tertiary memory disorders clinics and neuropathological and biomarker core centers.
Participants
75 samples from patients with CSF data obtained from both assays were used for transformation of ELISA values. 40 autopsy-confirmed cases (30 AD, 10 FTLD) were used to establish diagnostic cutoff values, and then cross-validated in a second sample set of 21 autopsy-confirmed cases (11 AD, 10 FTLD) with transformed ELISA values.
Main outcome measure
Diagnostic accuracy using transformed biomarker values.
Results
Data obtained from both assays were highly correlated. The t-tau:Aß1-42 ratio had the highest correlation between measures (r=0.928, p<0.001) and high reliability of transformation (ICC=0.89). A cutoff of 0.34 for the t-tau:Aß1-42 ratio had 90% and 100% sensitivity and 96.7% and 91% specificity to differentiate FTLD cases in the validation and cross-validation samples, respectively.
Conclusions
Values from two analytical platforms can be transformed into equivalent units, which can distinguish AD from FTLD more accurately than the clinical diagnosis.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2012.26
PMCID: PMC3528180  PMID: 22490326
2.  Biomarkers Associated With the Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Alzheimer Disease 
Archives of neurology  2012;69(10):1310-1317.
Background
A blood-based test that could be used as a screen for Alzheimer disease (AD) may enable early intervention and better access to treatment.
Objective
To apply a multiplex immunoassay panel to identify plasma biomarkers of AD using plasma samples from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort.
Design
Cohort study.
Setting
The Biomarkers Consortium Alzheimer’s Disease Plasma Proteomics Project.
Participants
Plasma samples at baseline and at 1 year were analyzed from 396 (345 at 1 year) patients with mild cognitive impairment, 112 (97 at 1 year) patients with AD, and 58 (54 at 1 year) healthy control subjects.
Main Outcome Measures
Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses were used to examine differences across diagnostic groups and relative to the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype.
Results
Increased levels of eotaxin 3, pancreatic polypeptide, and N-terminal protein B–type brain natriuretic peptide were observed in patients, confirming similar changes reported in cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with AD and MCI. Increases in tenascin C levels and decreases in IgM and ApoE levels were also observed. All participants with Apo ε3/ε4 or ε4/ε4 alleles showed a distinct biochemical profile characterized by low C-reactive protein and ApoE levels and by high Cortisol, interleukin 13, apolipoprotein B, and gamma interferon levels. The use of plasma biomarkers improved specificity in differentiating patients with AD from controls, and ApoE plasma levels were lowest in patients whose mild cognitive impairment had progressed to dementia.
Conclusions
Plasma biomarker results confirm cerebrospinal fluid studies reporting increased levels of pancreatic polypeptide and N-terminal protein B–type brain natriuretic peptide in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment. Incorporation of plasma biomarkers yielded high sensitivity with improved specificity, supporting their usefulness as a screening tool. The ApoE genotype was associated with a unique biochemical profile irrespective of diagnosis, highlighting the importance of genotype on blood protein profiles.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2012.1070
PMCID: PMC3683865  PMID: 22801723
3.  Shapes of the Trajectories of Five Major Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease 
Archives of neurology  2012;69(7):856-867.
Objective
To characterize the shape of the trajectories of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) biomarkers as a function of MMSE.
Design
Longitudinal registries from the Mayo Clinic and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI).
Patients
Two different samples (n=343 and n=598) were created that spanned the cognitive spectrum from normal to AD dementia. Subgroup analyses were performed in members of both cohorts (n=243 and n=328) who were amyloid positive at baseline.
Main Outcome Measures
The shape of biomarker trajectories as a function of MMSE, adjusted for age, was modeled and described as baseline (cross-sectional) and within-subject longitudinal effects. Biomarkers evaluated were cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 and tau; amyloid and fluoro deoxyglucose position emission tomography (PET) imaging, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Results
Baseline biomarker values generally worsened (i.e., non-zero slope) with lower baseline MMSE. Baseline hippocampal volume, amyloid PET and FDG PET values plateaued (i.e., non-linear slope) with lower MMSE in one or more analyses. Longitudinally, within-subject rates of biomarker change were associated with worsening MMSE. Non-constant within-subject rates (deceleration) of biomarker change were found in only one model.
Conclusions
Biomarker trajectory shapes by MMSE were complex and were affected by interactions with age and APOE status. Non-linearity was found in several baseline effects models. Non-constant within-subject rates of biomarker change were found in only one model, likely due to limited within-subject longitudinal follow up. Creating reliable models that describe the full trajectories of AD biomarkers will require significant additional longitudinal data in individual participants.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.3405
PMCID: PMC3595157  PMID: 22409939
Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; cerebro spinal fluid; amyloid PET imaging; FDG PET imaging
4.  Saccade abnormalities in autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease 
Archives of neurology  2012;69(4):509-517.
Objective
Deficits in the generation and control of saccades have been described in clinically-defined frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because clinical FTD syndromes can correspond to a number of different underlying neuropathologic FTD and non-FTD diagnoses, we sought to determine the saccade abnormalities associated with autopsy-defined cases of FTLD and AD.
Participants and design
An infrared eye tracker was used to record visually guided saccades to ten degree targets and antisaccades in 28 autopsy-confirmed FTD and 10 AD subjects, an average of 35.6 ± 10 months prior to death and 27 age-matched normal controls (NC). 12 FTD subjects had FTLD-TDP pathology, 15 had FTLD-tau pathology and one showed FTLD-FUS pathology. Receiver operating curve (ROC) statistics were used to determine diagnostic value of oculomotor variables. Neuroanatomical correlates of oculomotor abnormalities were investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
Results
All FTD and AD subjects were impaired relative to NC on the antisaccade task. However, only FTLD-tau and AD cases displayed reflexive visually-guided saccade abnormalities. AD cases displayed prominent increases in horizontal saccade latency that differentiated them from FTD cases. Impairments in velocity and gain were most severe in individuals with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) but were also present in other tauopathies. Vertical and horizontal saccade velocity and gain were able to differentiate PSP cases from other patients. Vertical saccade velocity was strongly correlated with dorsal midbrain volume.
Conclusion
Decreased visually-guided saccade velocity and gain are suggestive of underlying tau pathology in FTD, with vertical saccade abnormalities most diagnostic of PSP.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.1021
PMCID: PMC3423186  PMID: 22491196
Frontotemporal Dementia; Corticobasal Degeneration; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy; Ocular Motility
5.  Evidence for Ordering of Alzheimer’s Disease Biomarkers 
Archives of Neurology  2011;68(12):1526-1535.
Objective
To empirically assess the concept that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers significantly depart from normality in a temporally ordered manner.
Design
Validation sample
Setting
Multi-site, referral centers
Patients
We studied 401 elderly cognitively normal (CN), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We compared the proportions of three AD biomarkers – CSF Aβ42, CSF total tau (t-tau), and hippocampal volume adjusted by intra-cranial volume (HVa) - that were abnormal as cognitive impairment worsened. Cut-points demarcating normal vs. abnormal for each biomarker were established by maximizing diagnostic accuracy in independent autopsy samples.
Interventions
None
Main Outcome measures
AD biomarkers
Results
Within each clinical group in the entire sample (n=401) CSF Aβ42 was abnormal more often than t-tau or HVa. Among the 298 subjects with both baseline and 12 month data, the proportion of subjects with abnormal Aβ42 did not change from baseline to 12 months in any group. The proportion of subjects with abnormal t-tau increased from baseline to 12 months in CN (p=0.05) but not in MCI or dementia. In 209 subjects with abnormal CSF AB42 at baseline, the percent abnormal HVa, but not t-tau, increased from baseline to 12 months in MCI.
Conclusions
Reduction in CSF Aβ42 denotes a pathophysiological process that significantly departs from normality (i.e., becomes dynamic) early, while t-tau and HVa are biomarkers of downstream pathophysiological processes. T-tau becomes dynamic before HVa, but HVa is more dynamic in the clinically symptomatic MCI and dementia phases of the disease than t-tau.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.183
PMCID: PMC3387980  PMID: 21825215
Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; CSF tau; CSF Abeta; Alzheimer’s disease staging
6.  Genetic and Clinical Features of Progranulin-Associated Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(4):488-497.
Objective
To assess the relative frequency of unique mutations and their associated characteristics in 97 individuals with mutations in progranulin (GRN), an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).
Participants and Design
A 46-site International Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Collaboration was formed to collect cases of FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein of 43-kDa (TDP-43)–positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). We identified 97 individuals with FTLD-TDP with pathogenic GRN mutations (GRN+ FTLD-TDP), assessed their genetic and clinical characteristics, and compared them with 453 patients with FTLD-TDP in which GRN mutations were excluded (GRN− FTLD-TDP). No patients were known to be related. Neuropathologic characteristics were confirmed as FTLD-TDP in 79 of the 97 GRN+ FTLDTDP cases and all of the GRN− FTLD-TDP cases.
Results
Age at onset of FTLD was younger in patients with GRN+ FTLD-TDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (median, 58.0 vs 61.0 years; P<.001), as was age at death (median, 65.5 vs 69.0 years; P<.001). Concomitant motor neuron disease was much less common in GRN+ FTLDTDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (5.4% vs 26.3%; P<.001). Fifty different GRN mutations were observed, including 2 novel mutations: c.139delG (p.D47TfsX7) and c.378C>A (p.C126X). The 2 most common GRN mutations were c.1477C>T (p.R493X, found in 18 patients, representing 18.6% of GRN cases) and c.26C>A (p.A9D, found in 6 patients, representing 6.2% of cases). Patients with the c.1477C>T mutation shared a haplotype on chromosome 17; clinically, they resembled patients with other GRN mutations. Patients with the c.26C>A mutation appeared to have a younger age at onset of FTLD and at death and more parkinsonian features than those with other GRN mutations.
Conclusion
GRN+ FTLD-TDP differs in key features from GRN− FTLD-TDP.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.53
PMCID: PMC3160280  PMID: 21482928
7.  Cerebrospinal Fluid Profiles Predict Prospective Course and Outcome Among Persons with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(1):113-119.
Objectives
To examine the effect of specific “CSF profiles” on the rate of cognitive decline, disease progression, and risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Design
Total tau (t-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau181), and β-amyloid 1-42 peptide (Aβ42) were immunoassayed in CSF samples obtained from MCI patients enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Patients were then stratified by “CSF profiles”: (1) normal t-tau and Aβ42 levels (i.e., normal–t-tauAβ42), (2) normal t-tau but abnormal Aβ42 (i.e., abnormal–Aβ42), (3) abnormal t-tau but normal Aβ42 (i.e., abnormal–t-tau), and (4) abnormal t-tau and Aβ42 (i.e., abnormal–t-tauAβ42).
Setting
Fifty-eight sites in the US and Canada.
Participants
One hundred ninety-five MCI patients.
Main Outcome Measures
A composite cognitive measure, the CDR-Sum of Boxes, and conversion to AD.
Results
MCI patients with a CSF profile of abnormal–Aβ42 or abnormal–t-tauAβ42 experienced a faster rate of decline on the composite cognitive measure and the CDR-Sum of Boxes compared to those with normal–t-tauAβ42. They also had a greater risk of converting to AD relative to the normal–t-tauAβ42 group. In contrast, those with a CSF profile of abnormal–t-tau did not differ from the normal–t-tauAβ42 group on any outcome. These findings were generally replicated when the sample was reclassified by patterns of p-tau181 and Aβ42 abnormalities.
Conclusions
β-amyloid abnormalities, but not tau alterations, are associated with cognitive deterioration, disease progression, and increased risk of conversion to AD dementia in patients with MCI. Patients with abnormal levels of Aβ42 may be prime targets for drug treatment and clinical trials in MCI.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.334
PMCID: PMC3058271  PMID: 21220682
CSF; MCI; cognitive decline; disease progression; conversion to AD
8.  Comparison of analytical platforms for cerebrospinal fluid measures of Aβ1-42, total tau and p-tau181 for identifying Alzheimer’s disease amyloid plaque pathology 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(9):1137-1144.
OBJECTIVE
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are currently being considered for inclusion in revised diagnostic criteria for research and/or clinical purposes to increase the certainty of ante-mortem diagnosis. Establishing biomarker validity requires demonstration that the assays are true markers of underlying disease pathology (e.g., amyloid plaques and/or neurofibrillary tangles) in living individuals.
DESIGN
We compared the performances of the two most commonly used platforms, INNOTEST® ELISA and INNO-BIA AlzBio3 for measurement of CSF amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau(s), for identifying the presence of amyloid plaques in a research cohort (n=103). Values obtained for CSF Aβ1-42, total tau and phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau181) using the two assay platforms were compared to brain amyloid load as assessed by positron emission tomography using the amyloid imaging agent, Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB).
SUBJECTS
Research volunteers who are cognitively normal or have very mild to moderate AD dementia.
RESULTS
The two assay platforms yielded different (~2–6-fold) absolute values for the various analytes, but relative values were highly correlated. CSF Aβ1-42 correlated inversely, and tau and p-tau181 correlated positively, with the amount of cortical PIB binding, albeit to differing degrees. Both assays yielded similar patterns of CSF biomarker correlations with amyloid load. The ratios of total tau/Aβ1-42 and p-tau181/Aβ1-42 outperformed any single analyte, including Aβ1-2, in discriminating individuals with versus without cortical amyloid.
CONCLUSIONS
The INNOTEST® and INNO-BIA CSF platforms performed equally well in identifying individuals with underlying amyloid plaque pathology. Differences in absolute values, however, point to the need for assay-specific diagnostic cut-point values.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.105
PMCID: PMC3154969  PMID: 21555603
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid; biomarkers; cerebrospinal fluid; imaging (PET, MRI) in dementias; Pittsburgh Compound B
9.  CEREBROSPINAL FLUID ABNORMALITIES AND RATE OF DECLINE IN EVERYDAY FUNCTION ACROSS THE DEMENTIA SPECTRUM: NORMAL AGING, MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT, AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE 
Archives of neurology  2010;67(6):688-696.
OBJECTIVES
To investigate the effect of CSF abnormalities on rate of decline in everyday function in normal aging, MCI, and mild AD.
DESIGN
T-tau, p-tau181, and Aβ42 were immunoassayed in CSF obtained from participants in the AD Neuroimaging Initiative. Random effects regressions were used to examine the relationship between CSF abnormalities, cognitive impairment (assessed with the ADAS-Cog), and functional decline (assessed with Pfeffer’s FAQ); and to determine whether the impact of CSF abnormality on functional decline is mediated by cognitive impairment.
SETTING
Fifty-eight sites in the US and Canada.
PARTICIPANTS
One hundred fourteen cognitively-intact adults, 195 MCI patients, and 100 mild AD patients.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
Decline in Pfeffer’s FAQ.
RESULTS
All CSF analytes were associated with functional decline in MCI and all but t-tau/Aβ42 were associated with functional decline in controls. No CSF analyte was associated with functional decline in AD. Among controls, p-tau181 was the most sensitive to functional decline whereas in MCI it was Aβ42. CSF biomarkers were uniformly more sensitive to functional decline than the ADAS-Cog among controls and variably so in MCI, whereas the ADAS-Cog was unequivocally more sensitive than CSF biomarkers in AD. The impact of CSF abnormalities on functional decline in MCI was partially mediated by their impact on cognitive status. Across all diagnostic groups, persons with both tau and Aβ42 abnormalities exhibited the steepest rate of functional decline.
CONCLUSIONS
CSF abnormalities are associated with functional decline, and thus with future development of AD in controls and MCI patients. However, they do not predict further functional degradation in AD. Persons with comorbid tau and Aβ42 abnormalities are at greatest risk of functional loss.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.118
PMCID: PMC2888499  PMID: 20558388
CSF; FAQ; ADAS-Cog; activities of daily living; functional decline; MCI; AD
10.  Pathological 43-kDa Transactivation Response DNA-Binding Protein in Older Adults With and Without Severe Mental Illness 
Archives of neurology  2010;67(10):1238-1250.
Background
Major psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and mood disorders have not been linked to a specific pathology, but their clinical features overlap with some aspects of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although the significance of pathological 43-kDa (transactivation response) DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) for frontotemporal lobar degeneration was appreciated only recently, the prevalence of TDP-43 pathology in patients with severe mental illness vs controls has not been systematically addressed.
Objective
To examine patients with chronic psychiatric diseases, mainlyschizophrenia, for evidence of neurodegenerative TDP-43 pathology in comparison with controls.
Design
Prospective longitudinal clinical evaluation and retrospective medical record review, immunohistochemical identification of pathological TDP-43 in the central nervous system, and genotyping for gene alterations known to cause TDP-43 proteinopathies including the TDP-43 (TARDBP) and progranulin (GRN) genes.
Setting
University health system.
Participants
One hundred fifty-one subjects including 91 patients with severe mental illness (mainly schizophrenia) and 60 controls.
Main Outcome Measures
Clinical medical record review, neuronal and glial TDP-43 pathology, and TARDP and GRN genotyping status.
Results
Significant TDP-43 pathology in the amygdala/periamygdaloid region or the hippocampus/transentorhinal cortex was absent in both groups in subjects younger than 65 years but present in elderly subjects (29% [25 of 86] of the psychiatric patients and 29% [10 of 34] of control subjects). Twenty-three percent (8 of 35) of the positive cases showed significant TDP-43 pathology in extended brain scans. There were no evident differences between the 2 groups in the frequency, degree, or morphological pattern of TDP-43 pathology. The latter included (1) subpial and subependymal, (2) focal, or (3) diffuse lesions in deep brain parenchyma and (4) perivascular pathology. A new GRN variant of unknown significance (c.620T>C, p.Met207Thr) was found in 1 patient with schizophrenia with TDP-43 pathology. No known TARDBP mutations or other variants were found in any of the subjects studied herein.
Conclusions
The similar findings of TDP-43 pathology in elderly patients with severe mental illness and controls suggest common age-dependent TDP-43 changes in limbic brain areas that may signify that these regions are affected early in the course of a cerebral TDP-43 multisystem proteinopathy. Finally, our data provide an age-related baseline for the development of whole-brain pathological TDP-43 evolution schemata.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.254
PMCID: PMC3050578  PMID: 20937952
11.  Diagnosis-Independent Alzheimer Disease Biomarker Signature in Cognitively Normal Elderly People 
Archives of neurology  2010;67(8):949-956.
Objective
To identify biomarker patterns typical for Alzheimer disease (AD) in an independent, unsupervised way, without using information on the clinical diagnosis.
Design
Mixture modeling approach.
Setting
Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database.
Patients or Other Participants
Cognitively normal persons, patients with AD, and individuals with mild cognitive impairment.
Main Outcome Measures
Cerebrospinal fluid–derived β-amyloid protein 1–42, total tau protein, and phosphorylated tau181P protein concentrations were used as biomarkers on a clinically well-characterized data set. The outcome of the qualification analysis was validated on 2 additional data sets, 1 of which was autopsy confirmed.
Results
Using the US Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data set, a cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid protein 1–42/phosphorylated tau181P biomarker mixture model identified 1 feature linked to AD, while the other matched the “healthy” status. The AD signature was found in 90%, 72%, and 36% of patients in the AD, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitively normal groups, respectively. The cognitively normal group with the AD signature was enriched in apolipoprotein E ε4 allele carriers. Results were validated on 2 other data sets. In 1 study consisting of 68 autopsy-confirmed AD cases, 64 of 68 patients (94% sensitivity) were correctly classified with the AD feature. In another data set with patients (n = 57) with mild cognitive impairment followed up for 5 years, the model showed a sensitivity of 100% in patients progressing to AD.
Conclusions
The mixture modeling approach, totally independent of clinical AD diagnosis, correctly classified patients with AD. The unexpected presence of the AD signature in more than one-third of cognitively normal subjects suggests that AD pathology is active and detectable earlier than has heretofore been envisioned.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.179
PMCID: PMC2963067  PMID: 20697045
12.  The Spectrum of Mutations in Progranulin 
Archives of neurology  2010;67(2):161-170.
Background
Mutation in the progranulin gene (GRN) can cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, it is unclear whether some rare FTD-related GRN variants are pathogenic and whether neurodegenerative disorders other than FTD can also be caused by GRN mutations.
Objectives
To delineate the range of clinical presentations associated with GRN mutations and to define pathogenic candidacy of rare GRN variants.
Design
Case-control study.
Setting
Clinical and neuropathology dementia research studies at 8 academic centers.
Participants
Four hundred thirty-four patients with FTD, including primary progressive aphasia, semantic dementia, FTD/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), FTD/motor neuron disease, corticobasal syndrome/corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, Pick disease, dementia lacking distinctive histopathology, and pathologically confirmed cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U); and 111 non-FTD cases (controls) in which TDP-43 deposits were a prominent neuropathological feature, including subjects with ALS, Guam ALS and/or parkinsonism dementia complex, Guam dementia, Alzheimer disease, multiple system atrophy, and argyrophilic grain disease.
Main Outcome Measures
Variants detected on sequencing of all 13 GRN exons and at least 80 base pairs of flanking introns, and their pathogenic candidacy determined by in silico and ex vivo splicing assays.
Results
We identified 58 genetic variants that included 26 previously unknown changes. Twenty-four variants appeared to be pathogenic, including 8 novel mutations. The frequency of GRN mutations was 6.9% (30 of 434) of all FTD-spectrum cases, 21.4% (9 of 42) of cases with a pathological diagnosis of FTLD-U, 16.0% (28 of 175) of FTD-spectrum cases with a family history of a similar neurodegenerative disease, and 56.2% (9 of 16) of cases of FTLD-U with a family history.
Conclusions
Pathogenic mutations were found only in FTD-spectrum cases and not in other related neurodegenerative diseases. Haploinsufficiency of GRN is the predominant mechanism leading to FTD.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2009.328
PMCID: PMC2901991  PMID: 20142524
13.  Survival Profiles of Patients With Frontotemporal Dementia and Motor Neuron Disease 
Archives of neurology  2009;66(11):1359-1364.
Background
Frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are neurodegenerative diseases associated with TAR DNA-binding protein 43– and ubiquitin-immunoreactive pathologic lesions.
Objective
To determine whether survival is influenced by symptom of onset in patients with frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Design, Setting, and Patients
Retrospective review of patients with both cognitive impairment and motor neuron disease consecutively evaluated at 4 academic medical centers in 2 countries.
Main Outcome Measures
Clinical phenotypes and survival patterns of patients.
Results
A total of 87 patients were identified, including 60 who developed cognitive symptoms first, 19 who developed motor symptoms first, and 8 who had simultaneous onset of cognitive and motor symptoms. Among the 59 deceased patients, we identified 2 distinct subgroups of patients according to survival. Long-term survivors had cognitive onset and delayed emergence of motor symptoms after a long monosymptomatic phase and had significantly longer survival than the typical survivors (mean, 67.5 months vs 28.2 months, respectively; P<.001). Typical survivors can have simultaneous or discrete onset of cognitive and motor symptoms, and the simultaneous-onset patients had shorter survival (mean, 19.2 months) than those with distinct cognitive or motor onset (mean, 28.6 months) (P=.005).
Conclusions
Distinct patterns of survival profiles exist in patients with frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease, and overall survival may depend on the relative timing of the emergence of secondary symptoms.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2009.253
PMCID: PMC2881327  PMID: 19901167
14.  Transactive Response DNA-Binding Protein 43 Burden in Familial Alzheimer Disease and Down Syndrome 
Archives of neurology  2009;66(12):1483-1488.
Objective
To assess the transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) burden in familial forms of Alzheimer disease (FAD) and Down syndrome (DS) to determine whether TDP-43 inclusions are also present.
Design
Using standard immunohistochemical techniques, we examined brain tissue samples from 42 subjects with FAD and 14 with DS.
Results
We found pathological TDP-43 aggregates in 14.0% of participants (6 of 42 and 2 of 14 participants with FAD and DS, respectively). In both FAD and DS, TDP-43 immunoreactivity did not colocalize with neurofibrillary tangles. Occasionally participants with FAD or DS had TDP-43–positive neuropil threads or dots. Overall, the amygdala was most commonly affected, followed by the hippocampus, with no TDP-43 pathology in neocortical regions. A similar distribution of TDP-43 inclusions is seen in sporadic Alzheimer disease, but it differs from that seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.
Conclusions
Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 pathology occurs in FAD and DS, similar to that observed in sporadic Alzheimer disease. Thus, pathological TDP-43 may contribute the cognitive impairments in familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer disease.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2009.277
PMCID: PMC2864642  PMID: 20008652
15.  Clinical and Pathological Continuum of Multisystem TDP-43 Proteinopathies 
Archives of neurology  2009;66(2):180-189.
Objective
To determine the extent of transactivation response DNA-binding protein with a molecular weight of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology in the central nervous system of patients with clinically and autopsy-confirmed diagnoses of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with and without motor neuron disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without cognitive impairment.
Design
Performance of immunohistochemical whole–central nervous system scans for evidence of pathological TDP-43 and retrospective clinical medical record review.
Setting
An academic medical center.
Participants
We included 64 patients with clinically and pathologically confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions with or without motor neuron disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with or without cognitive impairment.
Main Outcome Measure
Neuronal and glial TDP-43 pathology.
Results
We found evidence of neuronal and glial TDP-43 pathology in all disease groups throughout the neuraxis, albeit with variations in the frequency, morphology, and distribution of TDP-43 lesions. Moreover, the major clinical manifestations (eg, cognitive impairments, motor neuron signs, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuropsychiatric features) were reflected by the predominant distribution and burden of TDP-43 pathology.
Conclusion
These findings strongly suggest that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions are different manifestations of a multiple-system TDP-43 proteinopathy linked to similar mechanisms of neurodegeneration.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2008.558
PMCID: PMC2774117  PMID: 19204154
16.  Two German Kindreds with Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis due to TARDBP Mutations 
Archives of neurology  2008;65(9):1185-1189.
Background:
Abnormal neuronal inclusions composed of the TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are the characteristic neuropathological lesions in sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This makes TARDBP, the gene encoding for TDP-43, an interesting candidate gene for genetic screening in ALS.
Objective:
To investigate the presence and frequency of TARDBP mutations in ALS.
Design:
Genetic analysis
Participants:
One hundred thirty-four patiens with sporadic ALS, 31 patients with familial non-SOD1-ALS, and 400 healthy control subjects.
Results:
We identified two missense mutations in TARDBP (G348C and the novel N352S) in two small kindreds with a hereditary form of ALS with early spinal onset resulting in fatal respiratory insufficiency without clinical relevant bulbar symptoms or signs of cognitive impairment. The mutations located in the C-terminus of TDP-43 were absent in 400 Caucasian control individuals. The novel identified N352S mutation is predicted to increase TDP-43 phosphorylation while the G348C mutation might interfere with normal TDP-43 function by forming intermolecular disulfide bridges.
Conclusion:
Mutations in TARDBP are a rare cause of familial non-SOD1-ALS. The identification of TARDBP mutations provides strong evidence for a direct link between TDP-43 dysfunction and neurodegeneration in ALS.
doi:10.1001/archneur.65.9.1185
PMCID: PMC2742976  PMID: 18779421
TDP-43; ALS; TARDBP
17.  Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis–Plus Syndrome With TAR DNA-Binding Protein-43 Pathology 
Archives of neurology  2009;66(1):121-124.
Background
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)–Plus syndromes meet clinical criteria for ALS but also include 1 or more additional features such as dementia, geographic clustering, extrapyramidal signs, objective sensory loss, autonomic dysfunction, cerebellar degeneration, or ocular motility disturbance.
Methods
We performed a whole-brain and spinal cord pathologic analysis in a patient with an ALS-Plus syndrome that included repetitive behaviors along with extrapyramidal and supranuclear ocular motility disturbances resembling the clinical phenotype of progressive supranuclear palsy.
Results
There was motoneuron cell loss and degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. Bunina bodies were present. TAR DNA-binding protein-43 pathology was diffuse. Significant tau pathology was absent.
Conclusions
TAR DNA-binding protein-43 disorders can produce a clinical spectrum of neurodegeneration that includes ALS, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and ALS with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The present case illustrates that isolated TAR DNA-binding protein-43 disorders can produce an ALS-Plus syndrome with extrapyramidal features and supranuclear gaze palsy resembling progressive supranuclear palsy.
doi:10.1001/archneur.66.1.121
PMCID: PMC2702763  PMID: 19139310
18.  TDP-43 in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients With Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 
Archives of neurology  2008;65(11):1481-1487.
Background
Recently, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) was identified as the major component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative neuronal and glial inclusions in the most common form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It was demonstrated that different TDP-43 profiles correspond to clinical phenotypes of FTLD or ALS subgroups, and the differential diagnostic potential of TDP-43 was suggested.
Objectives
To examine TDP-43 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and to analyze whether it could serve as a diagnostic marker.
Design
We characterized CSF TDP-43 by immunoblot using different TDP-43 antibodies and determined the relative TDP-43 levels in CSF samples from patients.
Setting
Academic research.
Patients
Twelve patients with FTLD, 15 patients with ALS, 9 patients with ALS plus FTLD, 3 patients with ALS plus additional signs of frontal disinhibition, and 13 control subjects.
Main Outcome Measures
Results of TDP-43 immunoblot.
Results
Polyclonal TDP-43 antibodies recognized a 45-kDa band in all analyzed samples. Two monoclonal and N-terminus—specific antibodies did not detect any specific bands, but C-terminus—specific antibodies detected a 45-kDa band and additional bands at approximately 20 kDa in all CSF samples. Relative quantification of 45-kDa bands revealed significant differences among the diagnostic groups (P=.046). Specifically, patients with ALS (P=.03) and FTLD (P=.02) had higher TDP-43 levels than controls but with a prominent overlap of values.
Conclusion
Although there is no evidence of pathologically altered TDP-43 proteins in CSF, TDP-43 levels in CSF might aid in characterizing subgroups of patients across the ALS and FTLD disease spectrum.
doi:10.1001/archneur.65.11.1481
PMCID: PMC2690860  PMID: 19001167

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