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1.  Central nervous system involvement in adult patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Influence of rituximab 
Oncology Letters  2012;4(3):541-545.
CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-like chemotherapy, in combination with rituximab (R-CHOP-like), improves outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We aimed to investigate the impact of rituximab on central nervous system (CNS) disease in adult patients. We studied 315 patients (aged 18–60 years old) from six hospitals between July 2003 and May 2008. All patients received CHOP-like (n=165) or R-CHOP-like (n=150) regimen every 3 weeks. With a median follow-up of 3.69 years, 10 patients (3.17%) developed CNS disease. The cumulative risk of CNS occurrence was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (P=0.871). We conclude that the addition of rituximab did not reduce the risk of CNS disease in adult patients with DLBCL.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.755
PMCID: PMC3439009  PMID: 22970053
central nervous system; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; rituximab
2.  Live Poultry Trade in Southern China Provinces and HPAIV H5N1 Infection in Humans and Poultry: The Role of Chinese New Year Festivities 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49712.
Background
The number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) over the past 5 years has been drastically reduced in China but sporadic infections in poultry and humans are still occurring. In this study, we aimed to investigate seasonal patterns in the association between the movement of live poultry originating from southern China and HPAIV H5N1 infection history in humans and poultry in China.
Methodology/Principal Findings
During January to April 2010, longitudinal questionnaire surveys were carried out monthly in four wholesale live bird markets (LBMs) in Hunan and Guangxi provinces of South China. Using social network analysis, we found an increase in the number of observed links and degree centrality between LBMs and poultry sources in February and March compared to the months of January and April. The association of some live poultry traders (LPT’s) with a limited set of counties (within the catchment area of LBMs) in the months of February and March may support HPAIV H5N1 transmission and contribute to perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 virus circulation among certain groups of counties. The connectivity among counties experiencing human infection was significantly higher compared to counties without human infection for the months of January, March and April. Conversely, counties with poultry infections were found to be significantly less connected than counties without poultry infection for the month of February.
Conclusions/Significance
Our results show that temporal variation in live poultry trade in Southern China around the Chinese New Year festivities is associated with higher HPAIV H5N1 infection risk in humans and poultry. This study has shown that capturing the dynamic nature of poultry trade networks in Southern China improves our ability to explain the spatiotemporal dissemination in avian influenza viruses in China.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049712
PMCID: PMC3500328  PMID: 23166751
3.  Study and analysis of the state of rare disease research in Shandong Province, China 
Summary
As the world's most populous country, China has the world's largest number of rare disease groups in terms of prevalence. However, the country has no system of registering cases of most rare diseases, so there is very little documented information on the epidemiology of those diseases. The purpose of this study was to study the state of rare disease research and survey doctors in Shandong Province regarding their level of awareness of rare diseases. Types of rare diseases and numbers of cases were tallied and their geographical distribution over the decades was analyzed. Eight hundred and twenty-four doctors in tertiary hospitals and maternity and child care hospitals were surveyed by questionnaire. Data were descriptively analyzed and a map of disease distribution was created. Articles about rare diseases were retrieved from the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database to provide pertinent data. This study yielded 5,749 cases of 323 different types of rare diseases. The survey found that doctors lack awareness of research on rare diseases. An authoritative and information-rich platform for rare disease research is urgently needed. Key steps are to study epidemiological and statistical techniques and then obtain available data to provide a basis for the definition and regulation of rare diseases in China.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2012.v1.4.161
PMCID: PMC4204566  PMID: 25343091
Rare diseases; awareness survey; descriptive analysis
4.  Abnormal expression of GADD45B in human colorectal carcinoma 
Background
GADD45B is a member of the growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene family associated with cell growth control, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair response. The aim of this study is to detect the role of GADD45B in colorectal carcinoma (CRC); the area not studied in depth to date.
Methods
The mRNA and protein levels of GADD45B were examined by Real-Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in CRC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCT). Over-expression plasmids and SiRNA were used to regulate GADD45B expression in CRC cell lines in vitro and flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to detect apoptotic changes.
Results
The mRNA and protein levels of GADD45B were significantly higher in CRC tissues than those in ANCT (P<0.05). Up-regulation of GADD45B was also correlated with relapse and death of CRC patients (P<0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly worse in CRC patients who showed GADD45B overexpression. A Cox multivariate analysis revealed that GADD45B overexpression and TNM stage were significant factors affecting patients’ survival. On the other hand, as a tumor suppressor gene, GADD45B amplified from normal colorectal tissues could induce apoptosis in CRC cell lines and may be associated with the p53-mediated apoptotic pathways.
Conclusion
GADD45B, a tumor suppressor gene potentially through the p53-mediated apoptotic pathways, is paradoxically overexpressed in CRC and as such may play an unappreciated role in tumorigenesis. The exact mechanism of GADD45B inactivation and overexpression requires further investigation. GADD45B could be a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment in future.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-10-215
PMCID: PMC3495754  PMID: 23110778
Colorectal carcinoma; GADD45B; Carcinogenesis; Relapse
5.  A systematic review of genetic skeletal disorders reported in Chinese biomedical journals between 1978 and 2012 
Little information is available on the prevalence, geographic distribution and mutation spectrum of genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) in China. This study systematically reviewed GSDs as defined in “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders (2010 version)” using Chinese biomedical literature published over the past 34 years from 1978 to 2012. In total, 16,099 GSDs have been reported. The most frequently reported disorders were Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, fibrous dysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, multiple cartilaginous exostoses, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), osteopetrosis, achondroplasia, enchondromatosis (Ollier), and osteopoikilosis, accounting for 76.5% (12,312 cases) of the total cases. Five groups (group 8, 12, 14, 18, 21) defined by “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders” have not been reported in the Chinese biomedical literature. Gene mutation testing was performed in only a minor portion of the 16,099 cases of GSDs (187 cases, 1.16%). In total, 37 genes for 41 different GSDs were reported in Chinese biomedical literature, including 43 novel mutations. This review revealed a significant imbalance in rare disease identification in terms of geographic regions and hospital levels, suggesting the need to create a national multi-level network to meet the specific challenge of care for rare diseases in China.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-55
PMCID: PMC3492206  PMID: 22913777
Rare diseases; Genetic skeletal diseases; China; Bibliographic study
6.  Potentially Functional Variants of PLCE1 Identified by GWASs Contribute to Gastric Adenocarcinoma Susceptibility in an Eastern Chinese Population 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e31932.
Background
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2274223 A>G) in PLCE1 to be associated with risk of gastric adenocarcinoma. In the present study, we validated this finding and also explored the risk associated with another unreported potentially functional SNP (rs11187870 G>C) of PLCE1 in a hospital-based case-control study of 1059 patients with pathologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma and 1240 frequency-matched healthy controls.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We determined genotypes of these two SNPs by the Taqman assay and used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We found that a significant higher gastric adenocarcinoma risk was associated with rs2274223 variant G allele (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14–1.60 for AG+GG vs. AA) and rs11187870 variant C allele (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.05–1.50 for CG+CC vs. GG). We also found that the number of combined risk alleles (i.e., rs2274223G and rs11187870C) was associated with risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in an allele-dose effect manner (Ptrend = 0.0002). Stratification analysis indicated that the combined effect of rs2274223G and rs11187870C variant alleles was more evident in subgroups of males, non-smokers, non-drinkers and patients with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Further real-time PCR results showed that expression levels of PLCE1 mRNA were significantly lower in tumors than in adjacent noncancerous tissues (0.019±0.002 vs. 0.008±0.001, P<0.05).
Conclusions/Significances
Our results further confirmed that genetic variations in PLCE1 may contribute to gastric adenocarcinoma risk in an eastern Chinese population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031932
PMCID: PMC3295761  PMID: 22412849
7.  Rare diseases research in China: Opportunities, challenges, and solutions 
Summary
Rare diseases research in China can be traced back to the 1980s. Currently, control of rare diseases has become a national concern. This paper describes developments concerning rare diseases in China with regard to epidemiology, case registration, basic research, establishment of medical networks, and orphan drugs. A national program for rare disease research is being implemented in China to promote international cooperation in the future.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2012.v1.1.10
PMCID: PMC4204592  PMID: 25343065
Rare disease; China; development; epidemiology
8.  Phosphate/Pyrophosphate and MV-related Proteins in Mineralisation: Discoveries from Mouse Models 
During the process of matrix vesicle (MV)-mediated initiation of mineralisation, chondrocytes and osteoblasts mineralise the extracellular matrix by promoting the seeding of basic calcium phosphate crystals of hydroxyapatite (HA) along the collagen fibrils. This orchestrated process is carefully regulated by the balanced action of propagators and inhibitors of calcification. The primary antagonistic regulators of extracellular matrix mineralisation are phosphate (Pi) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Studies in mouse models and in humans have established critical roles for Pi/PPi homeostasis in biomineralisation. In this review, we present the regulators of Pi/PPi, as derived from animal models, and discuss their clinical relevance to physiological and pathological mineralisation.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.4538
PMCID: PMC3372882  PMID: 22719218
Mineralisation; Matrix vesicles; PPi; Pi; MV-related proteins; OPN.

Results 1-8 (8)