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1.  Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase II and Ki-67 proteins in prognosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors 
AIM: To investigate the expression and prognostic value of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and Ki-67 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).
METHODS: One hundred and thirteen GIST patients admitted to Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital from January 2004 to December 2010 were retrospectively followed up, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect CA II, Ki-67 and CD117 expression in tumor samples. The survival rates of the patients were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test, χ2 test and Cox proportional hazards model were used to determine the relationships between CA II, Ki-67 and CD117 expression and prognostic value in GISTs.
RESULTS: The survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 90.0%, 82.0% and 72.0% in all patients. However, in patients with positive CA II or Ki-67, the survival rates were 92.0%, 83.0% and 77.0% or 83.0%, 66.6% and 53.0%, respectively. Compared with the negative groups, the survival rates in the positive groups were significantly lower (CA II log-rank P = 0.000; Ki-67 log-rank P = 0.004). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that CA II, CD117 and Ki-67 were considerable immune factors in prognosis of GIST patients (CA II P = 0.043; CD117 P = 0.042; Ki-67 P = 0.007). Besides, tumor diameter, mitotic rate, tumor site, depth of invasion, complete resection, intraoperative rupture, and adjuvant therapy were important prognosis predictive factors. Our study indicated that CA II had strong expression in GISTs and the prognosis of GISTs with high CA II expression was better than that of GISTs with low or no expression, suggesting that CA II is both a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for GIST.
CONCLUSION: CA II and Ki-67 are significant prognostic factors for GISTs. CA II associated with neovascular endothelia could serve as a potential target for cancer therapy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i16.2473
PMCID: PMC3646137  PMID: 23674848
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Carbonic anhydrase; CD117; Ki-67; Prognostic factor
2.  Histological origin of pseudomyxoma peritonei in Chinese women: Clinicopathology and immunohistochemistry 
AIM: To investigate the histological origin of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) in Chinese women.
METHODS: The clinical and pathological data were reviewed for 35 women with PMP, and specimens of the peritoneal, appendiceal and ovarian lesions of each patient were examined using the PV-6000 immunohistochemistry method. Antibodies included cytokeratin (CK)7, CK20, mucin (MUC)-1, MUC-2, carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR).
RESULTS: Abundant colloidal mucinous tumors were observed in the peritoneum in all 35 cases. Thirty-one patients had a history of appendectomy, 28 of whom had mucinous lesions. There was one patient with appendicitis, one whose appendix showed no apparent pathological changes, and one with unknown surgical pathology. Ovarian mucinous tumors were found in 24 patients. The tumors were bilateral in 13 patients, on the right-side in nine, and on the left side in two. Twenty patients had combined appendiceal and ovarian lesions; 16 of whom had undergone initial surgery for appendiceal lesions. Four patients had undergone initial surgery for ovarian lesions, and relapse occurred in these patients at 1, 11, 32 and 85 mo after initial surgery. Appendiceal mucinous tumors were found in each of these four patients. Thirty-three of the 35 patients showed peritoneal lesions that were positive for CK20 and MUC-2, but negative for CK7, MUC-1, CA125, ER and PR. The expression patterns in the appendix and the ovary were similar to those of the peritoneal lesions. In one of the remaining two cases, CK20, CK7 and MUC-2 were positive, and MUC-1, CA125, ER and PR were negative. The ovaries were not resected. The appendix of one patient was removed at another hospital, and no specimen was evaluated. In the other case, the appendix appeared to be normal during surgery, and was not resected. Peritoneal and ovarian lesions were negative for CK20, MUC-2, CK7, MUC-1, CA125, ER and PR.
CONCLUSION: Most PMP originated from the appendix. Among women with PMP, the ovarian tumors were implanted rather than primary. For patients with PMP, appendectomy should be performed routinely. The ovaries, especially the right ovaries should be explored.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i30.3531
PMCID: PMC3163252  PMID: 21941421
Pseudomyxoma peritonei; Peritoneum; Tumor origin; Ovary; Appendix; Immunohistochemistry
3.  Clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of LRP16 expression in colorectal carcinoma 
AIM: To explore the expression of leukemia related protein 16 (LRP16) in colorectal carcinoma, and analyze its correlation with clinicopathologic features and prognosis.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for LRP16 was performed in 201 cases of colorectal carcinoma and 60 cases of distal normal mucosa. Medical records were reviewed and clinicopathological analysis was performed.
RESULTS: LRP16 expression was detected in 117 of 201 cases of the colorectal carcinoma and in 21 cases of 60 distal normal mucosa. The expression of LRP16 in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa (χ2 = 9.999, P = 0.002). LRP16 protein expression was found in 43.3% (52/120) of carcinoma at stage I and II, and 80.2% (65/81) of carcinoma at stage III and IV (χ2 =27.088, P = 0.001). Correlation between LRP16 expression and clinicopathological factors was significant in differentiation (P = 0.010), tumor size (P = 0.001), infiltrative depth (P = 0.000) and distant metastasis (P = 0.027). The difference of median survival time between cancer patients with LRP16 expression (38.0 mo) and those without was statistically significant (105.0 mo, Log rank = 41.455, P = 0.001). The multivariate survival analysis revealed that LRP16 expression was correlated significantly (Cox’s regression: P = 0.001, relative risk = 2.082) with shortened survival in the patients with colorectal cancer.
CONCLUSION: The expression of LRP16 is related to the degree of differentiation, invasiveness, metastasis and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i13.1644
PMCID: PMC2848373  PMID: 20355243
Colorectal neoplasms; Immunohistochemistry; Leukemia related protein 16; Prognosis; Clinicopathology
4.  Clinicopathological significance of LRP16 protein in 336 gastric carcinoma patients 
AIM: To investigate the expression of leukemia related protein 16 (LRP16), and the possible relationship between LRP16 expression and clinicopathological indices in 336 gastric carcinoma patients.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LRP16 expression in 336 cases of paraffin-embedded gastric carcinoma tissues and 60 cases of distal normal mucosa. The relationships between LRP16 expression and patients’ age, tumor size, histological grade, clinical stage, metastatic status and prognosis were analysed.
RESULTS: The expression of LRP16 was 58.6% (197/336) in gastric carcinoma and 31.7% (19/60) in distal normal gastric mucosa. The expression of LRP16 in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa tissues (χ2 = 14.929, P = 0.001). LRP16 protein expression was found in 44.1% (63/143) carcinomas at stage I and II, and 69.4% (134/193) carcinomas at stage III and IV (χ2 = 21.804, P = 0.001), and in 56.9% (182/320) of cancers without metastasis but 93.8% (15/16) of those with metastasis (χ2 = 8.543, P = 0.003). The expression of LRP16 was correlated with tumor size, infiltrative depth, clinical stage, lymphatic invasion and distant metastasis (all P < 0.05). Follow-up data showed that there was a significant difference in median survival time between cancer patients with expression of LRP16 (27.0 mo) and those without (48.0 mo, Log rank =31.644, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The expression of LRP16 may be associated with invasion, metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.4833
PMCID: PMC2761564  PMID: 19824120
Gastric neoplasms; Immunohistochemistry; Leukemia related protein 16; Prognosis
5.  Growth inhibitory effect of wild-type Kras2 gene on a colonic adenocarcinoma cell line 
AIM: To observe the growth inhibitory effect of wild-type Kras2 gene on a colonic adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2.
METHODS: Recombinant plasmid pCI-neo-Kras2 with wild type Kras2 open reading frame was constructed. The Caco-2 cells were transfected with either pCI-neo or pCI-neo-Kras2 using Lipofectamine 2000. The expression of wild type Kras2 was examined by Northern blot analysis. And the expression of wild type Kras2 protein was examined by Western blot analysis. The effects of wild-type Kras2 on cell proliferation were analyzed by monotetrazolium (MTT) assay, meanwhile analyses of cell cycle and spontaneous apoptosis rate were carried out by flow cytometry (FCM).
RESULTS: The plasmid of pCI-neo-Kras2 was successfully established. The growth rate of cells transfected with pCI-neo-Kras2 was significantly lower than the control cells transfected with the empty pCI-neo vector (P < 0.05). Cell cycle analysis revealed arrest of the pCI-neo-Kras2 transfected cells in G0/G1 phases, decreased DNA synthesis and decreased fractions of cells in S phase. The proliferative index of cells transfected with pCI-neo-Kras2 was decreased compared with the control cells (49.78% vs 64.21%),while the apoptotic rate of Caco-2 cells with stable Kras2 expression increased (0.30% vs 0.02%).
CONCLUSION: The wild-type Kras2 gene effectively inhibits the growth of the colonic adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i6.934
PMCID: PMC4065933  PMID: 17352027
Colonic adenocarcinoma; Wild-type Kras2; Cell cycle; Apoptosis
6.  Aberrant cytological localization of p16 and CDK4 in colorectal epithelia in the normal adenoma carcinoma sequence 
AIM: To study the correlation between the patterns of subcellular expression of p16 and CDK4 in colorectal epithelia in the normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
METHODS: Paraffin sections of 43 cases of normal colorectal epithelia and corresponding adenomas as well as carcinomas were analysed immunocytochemically for subcellular expression of p16 and CDK4 proteins.
RESULTS: Most carcinomas showed more cytoplasmic overexpression for p16 and CDK4 than the adenomas from which they arised or the adjacent normal mucosa. Most normal or non-neoplastic epithelia showed more p16 and CDK4 expression in the nucleus than their adjacent adenomas and carcinomas. There was a significant difference between the subcellular expression pattern of p16 and CDK4 in normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence epithelia (P < 0.001). Neither p16 nor CDK4 subcellular patterns correlated with histological grade or Dukes' stage.
CONCLUSION: Interaction of expression of p16 and CDK4 plays an important role in the Rb/p16 pathway. Overexpression of p16 and CDK4 in the cytoplasm, as well as loss expression of p16 in the nucleus might be important in the evolution of colorectal carcinoma from adenoma and, of adenoma from normal epithelia.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i39.6391
PMCID: PMC4088153  PMID: 17072968
Colorectal neoplasm; p16; CDK4; Immuno-cytochemistry
7.  Loss of heterozygosity of Kras2 gene on 12p12-13 in Chinese colon carcinoma patients 
AIM: To study the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 12p12-13 in Chinese colon carcinoma patients.
METHODS: DNA was extracted from 10 specimens of cancer tissue, 10 specimens of adjacent tissue and 10 specimens of normal tissue, respectively. LOH of Kras2 gene was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using 11 microsatellite markers on 12p-12-13.
RESULTS: LOH of Kras gene was detected at least on one marker of 12p-12-13 in 30% (3/10) of adjacent tissue specimens. The highest frequency of LOH was identified on D12S1034 in 28.57% (2/7) of adjacent tissue specimens. LOH was detected at least on one marker of 12p12-13 in 60% (6/10) of carcinoma tissue specimens, the most frequent LOH was found on D12S1034 and D12S1591 in 42.86% (3/7) of carcinoma tissue specimens. LOH was detected in 30% (3/10) of carcinoma tissue specimens, 30% (3/10) of adjacent tissue specimens, and no signal in 1% (1/0) carcinoma tissue specimen. The occurrence of LOH did not correlate with sex, age, tumor size and lymph node metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Genomic instability may occur on 12p-12-13 of Kras2 gene in the development and progression of colon carcinoma. The high LOH of Kras2 gene may directly influence the transcription and translation of wild type Kras2 gene.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i7.1037
PMCID: PMC4087893  PMID: 16534842
Colon carcinoma; Loss of heterozygosity; Kras2

Results 1-7 (7)