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1.  Sexual dimorphism in immune response genes as a function of puberty 
BMC Immunology  2006;7:2.
Background
Autoimmune diseases are more prevalent in females than in males, whereas males have higher mortality associated with infectious diseases. To increase our understanding of this sexual dimorphism in the immune system, we sought to identify and characterize inherent differences in immune response programs in the spleens of male and female mice before, during and after puberty.
Results
After the onset of puberty, female mice showed a higher expression of adaptive immune response genes, while males had a higher expression of innate immune genes. This result suggested a requirement for sex hormones. Using in vivo and in vitro assays in normal and mutant mouse strains, we found that reverse signaling through FasL was directly influenced by estrogen, with downstream consequences of increased CD8+ T cell-derived B cell help (via cytokines) and enhanced immunoglobulin production.
Conclusion
These results demonstrate that sexual dimorphism in innate and adaptive immune genes is dependent on puberty. This study also revealed that estrogen influences immunoglobulin levels in post-pubertal female mice via the Fas-FasL pathway.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-7-2
PMCID: PMC1402325  PMID: 16504066
2.  Sources of variability and effect of experimental approach on expression profiling data interpretation 
BMC Bioinformatics  2002;3:4.
Background
We provide a systematic study of the sources of variability in expression profiling data using 56 RNAs isolated from human muscle biopsies (34 Affymetrix MuscleChip arrays), and 36 murine cell culture and tissue RNAs (42 Affymetrix U74Av2 arrays).
Results
We studied muscle biopsies from 28 human subjects as well as murine myogenic cell cultures, muscle, and spleens. Human MuscleChip arrays (4,601 probe sets) and murine U74Av2 Affymetrix microarrays were used for expression profiling. RNAs were profiled both singly, and as mixed groups. Variables studied included tissue heterogeneity, cRNA probe production, patient diagnosis, and GeneChip hybridizations. We found that the greatest source of variability was often different regions of the same patient muscle biopsy, reflecting variation in cell type content even in a relatively homogeneous tissue such as muscle. Inter-patient variation was also very high (SNP noise). Experimental variation (RNA, cDNA, cRNA, or GeneChip) was minor. Pre-profile mixing of patient cRNA samples effectively normalized both intra- and inter-patient sources of variation, while retaining a high degree of specificity of the individual profiles (86% of statistically significant differences detected by absolute analysis; and 85% by a 4-pairwise comparison survival method).
Conclusions
Using unsupervised cluster analysis and correlation coefficients of 92 RNA samples on 76 oligonucleotide microarrays, we found that experimental error was not a significant source of unwanted variability in expression profiling experiments. Major sources of variability were from use of small tissue biopsies, particularly in humans where there is substantial inter-patient variability (SNP noise).
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-3-4
PMCID: PMC65691  PMID: 11936955

Results 1-2 (2)