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1.  Bias Observed in Time-of-flight Shear Wave Speed Measurements Using Radiation Force of a Focused Ultrasound Beam 
Ultrasound in medicine & biology  2011;37(11):1884-1892.
Measurement of shear wave propagation speed has important clinical applications because it is related to tissue stiffness and health state. Shear waves can be generated in tissues by the radiation force of a focused ultrasound beam (push beam). Shear wave speed can be measured by tracking its propagation laterally from the push beam focus using the time-of-flight principle. This study shows that shear wave speed measurements with such methods can be transducer, depth, and lateral tracking range dependent. Three homogeneous phantoms with different stiffness were studied using curvilinear and linear array transducer. Shear wave speed measurements were made at different depths, using different aperture sizes for push, and at different lateral distance ranges from the push beam. The curvilinear transducer shows a relatively large measurement bias that is depth dependent. The possible causes of the bias and options for correction are discussed. These bias errors must be taken into account to provide accurate and precise time-of-flight shear wave speed measurements for clinical use.
doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2011.07.012
PMCID: PMC3199321  PMID: 21924817
Shear wave speed; Liver fibrosis; Bias; ARFI
2.  The Protective Effects of Ischemic Postconditioning against Stroke: From Rapid to Delayed and Remote Postconditioning 
The author reviews the protective effects of ischemic postconditioning, a recently emerging strategy with broad implications in the search for new treatments in stroke and myocardial ischemic injury. Ischemic postconditioning, which refers to a series of brief ischemia and reperfusion cycles applied immediately at the site of the ischemic organ after reperfusion, results in reduced infarction in both cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Conventional postconditioning induced within a few minutes after reperfusion is arbitrarily defined as rapid postconditioning. In contrast, postconditioning performed hours to days after stroke is defined as delayed postconditioning. In addition, postconditioning can be mimicked using anesthetics or other pharmacological agents as stimuli to protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury or performed in a distant organ, which is known as remote postconditioning. In this article, the author discusses the conceptual origin of classical rapid ischemic postconditioning and its evolution into a term that represents a broad range of stimuli or triggers, including delayed postconditioning, pharmacological postconditioning, and remote postconditioning. Thereafter, various in vivo and in vitro models of postconditioning and its potential protective mechanisms are discussed. Since the concept of postconditioning is so closely associated with that of preconditioning and both share some common protective mechanisms, whether a combination of preconditioning and postconditioning offers greater protection than preconditioning or postconditioning alone is also discussed.
doi:10.2174/1877381801002010138
PMCID: PMC3204606  PMID: 22053169
Postconditioning; preconditioning; stroke; cerebral ischemia; focal ischemia; neuroprotection
3.  An Insult-Inducible Vector System Activated by Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress for Neuronal Gene Therapy 
Translational stroke research  2011;2(1):92-100.
Gene therapy has demonstrated the protective potential of a variety of genes against stroke. However, conventional gene therapy vectors are limited due to the inability to temporally control their expression, which can sometimes lead to deleterious side effects. Thus, an inducible vector that can be temporally controlled and activated by the insult itself would be advantageous. Using hypoxia responsive elements (HRE) and antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), we have constructed an insult-inducible vector activated by hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In COS7 cells, the inducible ARE−HRE-luciferase vectors are highly activated by oxygen deprivation, hydrogen peroxide treatment, and the ROS-induced transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Using a defective herpes virus, the neuroprotective potential of this inducible vector was tested by over-expressing the transcription factor Nrf2. In primary cortical cultures, expression of the inducible ARE−HRE–Nrf2 protects against oxygen glucose deprivation, similar to that afforded by the constitutively expressed Nrf2. This ARE+HRE vector system is advantageous in that it allows the expression of a transgene to be activated not only during hypoxia but also maintained after reperfusion, thus prolonging the transgene expression during an ischemic insult. This insult-inducible vector system will be a valuable gene therapy tool for activating therapeutic/protective genes in cerebrovascular diseases.
doi:10.1007/s12975-010-0060-2
PMCID: PMC3097421  PMID: 21603078
Insult-inducible; Gene therapy; Hypoxia; HIF1; Nrf2; Reactive oxygen species
4.  Limited Therapeutic Time Windows of Mild-to-Moderate Hypothermia in a Focal Ischemia Model in Rat 
Stroke Research and Treatment  2011;2011:131834.
Although many studies have shown the great potential of induced hypothermia in stroke treatment, we recognize that there are limitations to the protective effects of hypothermia even in the laboratory. Here, we review our experiments on the protective effects of mild-to-moderate hypothermia in rats. Focal ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion for 1 to 2 hours combined with permanent or transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We compared the effects of mild (33°C) and moderate (30°C) hypothermia, evaluated therapeutic time windows, and studied the underlying mechanisms. On review, our findings revealed that the protective effects of induced mild hypothermia (33°C) were limited, and the therapeutic time window of even moderate hypothermia (30°C) was very short in our specific models, although this limitation might be due to the relatively brief periods of hypothermia used. In addition, we found that hypothermia reduced brain injury by preserving Akt activity, PTEN phosphorylation and εPKC activity, while inhibiting ROS production, and δPKC activity.
doi:10.4061/2011/131834
PMCID: PMC3159378  PMID: 21876846
5.  Identification of a natural human serotype 3 parainfluenza virus 
Virology Journal  2011;8:58.
Parainfluenza virus is an important pathogen threatening the health of animals and human, which brings human many kinds of disease, especially lower respiratory tract infection involving infants and young children. In order to control the virus, it is necessary to fully understand the molecular basis resulting in the genetic diversity of the virus. Homologous recombination is one of mechanisms for the rapid change of genetic diversity. However, as a negative-strand virus, it is unknown whether the recombination can naturally take place in human PIV. In this study, we isolated and identified a mosaic serotype 3 human PIV (HPIV3) from in China, and also provided several putative PIV mosaics from previous reports to reveal that the recombination can naturally occur in the virus. In addition, two swine PIV3 isolates transferred from cattle to pigs were found to have mosaic genomes. These results suggest that homologous recombination can promote the genetic diversity and potentially bring some novel biologic characteristics of HPIV.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-58
PMCID: PMC3045893  PMID: 21306605
6.  Molecular Characterization and Expression Pattern of Tripartite Motif Protein 39 in Gallus gallus with a Complete PRY/SPRY Domain 
Members of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins in mammals play important roles in multiple cellular processes in the immune system. In the present study we have obtained the chicken TRIM39 with the insertion of a base A at position 1006 bp, compared to the sequence in the NCBI database (Accession No: NM 001006196), which made TRIM39 fulfill the TRIM rule of domain composition with both PRY, and SPRY domains. The open reading frame consisted of 1392 bp encoding 463 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences of TRIM39 protein in mammals were highly similar (from 91.48% to 99.61%), while chicken TRIM39 had relatively low homology with mammals (from 29.2% to 39.59%). Real time RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA expression level of TRIM39 was the highest in spleen, with a lower expression in liver, brain, and lung, suggesting it might be an important protein participating in the immune system.
doi:10.3390/ijms12063797
PMCID: PMC3131591  PMID: 21747707
chicken; tripartite motif protein 39; B30.2 domain

Results 1-6 (6)