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1.  Anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing: Associations with pain and somatization in non-clinical children 
Journal of health psychology  2009;14(8):1085-1094.
This study examined the relationships among anxiety sensitivity (AS), catastrophizing, somatization, and pain in 240 non-clinical children (121 girls; mean age = 12.7 years). Children with pain problems (n = 81; 33.8%) reported greater AS and catastrophizing (p’s < .01) relative to children without pain problems. AS but not catastrophizing was significantly associated with current pain. However, both AS and catastrophizing were significantly associated with somatization. AS and catastrophizing represent related but partially distinct cognitive constructs that may be targeted by interventions aimed at alleviating pain and somatization in children.
doi:10.1177/1359105309342306
PMCID: PMC2770141  PMID: 19858329
Children; pain; somatization; catastrophizing; anxiety sensitivity
2.  Sex differences in the relationship between maternal negative life events and children’s laboratory pain responsivity 
Objective
Prior research has demonstrated links between psychosocial factors, including negative life events (NLE) and pain in children. The present study examined sex differences in the relationship between mother-reported NLE, child NLE, mother somatization and children’s laboratory pain responses for heat, cold and pressure pain tasks. We predicted that maternal NLE would be moderately associated with girls’ pain responses, but would not be associated with boys’ pain responses.
Method
Participants were 176 non-clinical children (89 boys) aged 8–18 years (mean = 12.2, SD = 2.7) and their mothers. Mothers and children completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of NLE experienced in the previous 12 months.
Results
Contrary to predictions, maternal NLE were related to pain responses in both boys and girls, although in opposite directions. Thus, increased maternal stress was associated with increased pain responses in girls but with decreased pain responses in boys. In addition, the impact of maternal NLE was only apparent for heat and pain tasks, indicating differential effects for various types of pain.
Conclusion
The current findings underscore the importance of family variables in understanding sex differences in children’s pain. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms within the parent-child relationship that contribute to sex-differentiated pain outcomes, particularly under conditions of exacerbated parental stress.
doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181b0ffe4
PMCID: PMC2813770  PMID: 19668092
negative life events; children’s laboratory pain; sex differences
3.  Role of Anticipatory Anxiety and Anxiety Sensitivity in Children’s and Adolescents’ Laboratory Pain Responses 
Journal of pediatric psychology  2004;29(5):379-388.
Objective
To examine relationships among trait anxiety sensitivity, state task-specific anticipatory anxiety, and laboratory pain responses in healthy children and adolescents.
Methods
Participants (N=118, 49.2% female, ages 8-18 years) completed a measure of anxiety sensitivity and rated anticipatory anxiety prior to undergoing thermal, pressure, and cold pain tasks. Linear and logistic regressions were used to test the hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity and anticipatory anxiety would predict incremental variance in pain response after controlling for sex, age, and anxious symptoms.
Results
Anticipatory anxiety accounted for 35-38% of unique variance in pain report across tasks, and 10% of unique variance in thermal tolerance. Anxiety sensitivity was unrelated to pain responses.
Conclusions
Task-specific anxiety is an important predictor of pain report and, in certain cases, pain tolerance. Interventions designed to reduce task-specific anticipatory anxiety may help reduce pain responses in children and adolescents.
PMCID: PMC2373257  PMID: 15187176
laboratory pain; anxiety; anxiety sensitivity; children; adolescents
4.  Parent and child anxiety sensitivity: Relationship to children’s experimental pain responsivity 
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) or fear of anxiety sensations has been linked to childhood learning history for somatic symptoms, suggesting that parental AS may impact children’s responses to pain. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we tested a conceptual model in which parent AS predicted child AS, which in turn predicted a hypothesized latent construct consisting of children’s pain intensity ratings for three laboratory pain tasks (cold pressor, thermal heat and pressure). This conceptual model was tested in 211 non-clinical parent-child pairs (104 girls, mean age = 12.4 years; 178 mothers). Our model was supported in girls only indicating that the sex of the child moderated the hypothesized relationships. Thus, parent AS was related to child laboratory pain intensity via its contribution to child AS in girls but not in boys. In girls, 42% of the effect of parent AS on laboratory pain intensity was explained via child AS. In boys, there was no clear link between parent AS and child AS, although child AS was predictive of experimental pain intensity across sex. Our results are consistent with the notion that parent AS may operate via healthy girls’ own fear of anxiety symptoms to influence their responses to laboratory pain stimuli.
Perspective-The present study highlights sex differences in the links among parent and child anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety sensations) and children’s experimental pain responses. Among girls, childhood learning history related to somatic symptoms may be a particularly salient factor in the development of AS and pain responsivity.
doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2005.12.004
PMCID: PMC1540407  PMID: 16632321
anxiety sensitivity; laboratory pain; children; adolescents; parent; sex differences
5.  Pain and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in a National Sample of Persons Living with HIV 
The current study investigated the relationship of pain to use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a U.S. nationally representative sample of 2466 persons with HIV using data from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS). Pain was conceptualized as a need characteristic within the context of predisposing, enabling, and need (PEN) characteristics following Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of baseline PEN characteristics with CAM use by follow-up (approximately 6 months later), including use of five specific CAM domains. Change in pain from baseline to follow-up was also examined in relation to CAM use. Baseline pain was a strong predictor of CAM use, and increased pain over time was associated with use of unlicensed or underground drugs with potential for harm. These results highlight the importance of medical efforts to control pain in persons living with HIV.
doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.05.012
PMCID: PMC1420635  PMID: 16310616
Complementary medicine; alternative medicine; human immunodeficiency virus; pain

Results 1-5 (5)