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1.  Effects of three fluid resuscitation methods on apoptosis of visceral organs in rats with hemorrhagic shock 
Objective: To observe the effects of three fluid resuscitation methods on apoptosis of visceral organs in rats with hemorrhagic shock. Methods: A model of rat with severe hemorrhagic shock and active bleeding was established in 32 SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats. The rats were randomly divided into control group, no fluid resuscitation group (NF group), controlled fluid resuscitation group (NS40 group) and rapid large scale fluid resuscitation group (NS80 group). Each group contained 8 rats. The curative effects were compared. At the same time, the apoptosis in liver, kidney, lung and small intestinal mucosa of survivors after hemorrhage and resuscitation was detected by light microscopy in HE (hematoxylin and eosin) stained tissue sections, flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Results: The survival rate of early fluid resuscitation (14/16) was markedly higher than that of NF group (3/8). There was some apoptosis in liver, kidney, lung and small intestinal mucosa of all survivors. Compared with NF and NS40 groups, the apoptosis of liver, kidney and small intestinal mucosa of NS80 group was obviously increased. Conclusions: Among three fluid resuscitation methods, controlled fluid resuscitation can obviously improve the early survival rate and the apoptosis of liver, kidney and small intestinal mucosa in rats with severe and uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, and may benefit improvement of prognosis.
doi:10.1631/jzus.2005.B0907
PMCID: PMC1389910  PMID: 16130194
Shock; Hemorrhagic; Resuscitation; Apoptosis
2.  Survival of the biocontrol agents Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 on the spikes of barley in the field*  
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that results in extensive yield losses to wheat and barley. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing plasmid pRP22-GFP was constructed for monitoring the colonization of two biocontrol agents, Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116, on the spikes of barley and their effect on suppression of FHB. Survival and colonization of the Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 strains on spikes of barley were observed by tracking the bacterial transformants with GFP expression. Our field study revealed that plasmid pRP22-GFP was stably maintained in the bacterial strains without selective pressure. The retrieved GFP-tagged strains showed that the bacterial population fluctuation accorded with that of the rain events. Furthermore, both biocontrol strains gave significant protection against FHB on spikes of barley in fields. The greater suppression of barley FHB disease was resulted from the treatment of barley spikes with biocontrol agents before inoculation with F. graminearum.
doi:10.1631/jzus.2005.B0770
PMCID: PMC1389858  PMID: 16052710
GFP; Survival; Brevibacillus brevis and Bacillus subtilis; Spikes; Barley; Biocontrol
3.  Kinase domain insert containing receptor promotor controlled suicide gene system kills human umbilical vein endothelial cells 
AIM: To evaluate the killing effect of double suicide gene mediated by adenovirus and regulated under kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
METHODS: By PCR technology, human KDR promoter gene, Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the herpes simple virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene were cloned. Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with them. Then, a recombinant adenoviral plasmid pAdKDR-CDglyTK was constructed in a “two-step transformation protocol”. The newly constructed plasmids were transfected to 293 packaging cells to grow adenoviruses, which were further propagated and purified. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were infected with a different multiplicity of infection (MOI) of resultant recombinant adenovirus, the infection rate was measured with the aid of (GFP) expression. Infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of (GCV) and/or 5-(FC), and the killing effects were measured.
RESULTS: Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed, and they infected HUVEC cells efficiently. Our data indicated that the infection rate was relevant to MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. HUVEC cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to the prodrugs, their survival rate correlated to both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. Our data also indicated that the two prodrugs used in combination were much more effective on killing transgeneic cells than GCV or 5-FC used alone.
CONCLUSION: Prodrug/KDR-CDglyTK system is effective on killing HUVEC cells, its killing effect correlates to the concentration of prodrugs and recombinant adenovirus’ MOI. Combined use of the two prodrugs confers better killing effects on transgeneic cells.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i24.3686
PMCID: PMC4316017  PMID: 15968721
Suicide gene; Adenovirus
4.  Trial of a novel endoscopic tattooing biopsy forceps on animal model 
AIM: To tattoo gastric mucosa with a novel medical device which could be used to monitor and follow-up gastric mucosal lesions.
METHODS: Combining endoscopic biopsy with sclerotherapy injection, we designed a new device that could perform biopsy and injection simultaneously. We performed endoscopies on a pig by using a novel endoscope tattoo biopsy forceps for 15 mo. At the same time, we used two-step method combining sclerotherapy injection needle with endoscopic biopsy. The acuity, inflammation and duration of endoscopy were compared between two methods.
RESULTS: Compared with the old two-step method, although the inflammation induced by our new device was similar, the duration of procedure was markedly decreased and the acuity of tattooing was better than the old two-step method. All characteristics of the novel device complied with national safety guidelines. Follow-up gastroscopy after 15 mo showed the stained site with injection of 1:100 0.5 mL of India ink was still markedly visible with little inflammatory reaction.
CONCLUSION: Endoscopic tattooing biopsy forceps can be widely used in monitoring precancerous lesions. Its safety and effectiveness has been established in animals.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i12.1859
PMCID: PMC4305891  PMID: 15793881
Gastric mucosa; Endoscopy; Lesions

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