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1.  Inhibition of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 by quercetin: an in vitro and in vivo assessment 
To investigate the effect of quercetin on organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) activities in vitro and on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin, a typical substrate for OATP1B1 in healthy Chinese-Han male subjects.
Using human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing OATP1B1, we observed the effect of quercetin on OATP1B1-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulphate (E3S) and pravastatin. The influence of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin was measured in 16 healthy Chinese-Han male volunteers receiving a single dose of pravastatin (40 mg orally) after co-administration of placebo or 500 mg quercetin capsules (once daily orally for 14 days).
Quercetin competitively inhibited OATP1B1-mediated E3S uptake with a Ki value of 17.9 ± 4.6 µm and also inhibited OATP1B1-mediated pravastatin uptake in a concentration dependent manner (IC50, 15.9 ± 1.4 µm). In healthy Chinese-Han male subjects, quercetin increased the pravastatin area under the plasma concentration – time curve (AUC(0,10 h) and the peak plasma drug concentration (Cmax) to 24% (95% CI 15, 32%, P < 0.001) and 31% (95% CI 20, 42%, P < 0.001), respectively. After administration of quercetin, the elimination half-life (t1/2) of pravastatin was prolonged by 14% (95% CI 4, 24%, P = 0.027), with no change in the time to reach Cmax (tmax). Moreover, quercetin decreased the apparent clearance (CL/F) of pravastatin by 18% (95% CI 75, 89%, P < 0.001).
These findings suggest that quercetin inhibits the OATP1B1-mediated transport of E3S and pravastatin in vitro and also has a modest inhibitory influence on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin in healthy Chinese-Han male volunteers. The effects of quercetin on other OATP1B1 substrate drugs deserve further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3403202  PMID: 22114872
drug–drug interaction; OATP1B1; pravastatin; quercetin
2.  Prognostic significance of gene-specific promoter hypermethylation in breast cancer patients 
The association between promoter methylation status and survival was investigated in a large cohort of women with breast cancer, participants in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Archived tumor tissues (n=839) were collected from women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997. Vital status was followed through the end of 2005 with a mean follow up time of 8 years. Promoter methylation of 8 breast cancer-related genes was assessed by MethyLight. The frequencies of methylation for HIN1, RASSF1A, DAPK1, GSTP1, CyclinD2, TWIST, CDH1 and RARβ were 62.9%, 85.2%, 14.1%, 27.8%, 19.6%, 15.3%, 5.8% and 27.6%, respectively. Since survival rates of in situ and invasive breast cancers are substantially different, survival analyses were conducted within 670 invasive cases with complete data on all genes. Age-adjusted Cox-proportional hazards models revealed that GSTP1, TWIST and RARβ methylation was significantly associated with higher breast cancer-specific mortality. Methylation of GSTP1 and RARβ were significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality. To investigate the relationship between the number of methylated genes and breast cancer-specific mortality, we included previously published MethyLight data on p16 and APC methylation status. Breast cancer-specific mortality increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing number of methylated genes (Ptrend = 0.002), although confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that promoter methylation, particularly for a panel of genes, has the potential to be used as a biomarker for predicting prognosis in breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3576848  PMID: 21837480
Promoter methylation; Tumor suppressor gene; Breast cancer; Mortality
3.  Effects of MDM2 promoter polymorphisms and p53 codon 72 polymorphism on risk and age at onset of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck 
Molecular carcinogenesis  2011;50(9):697-706.
Both p53 tumor suppressor and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein are crucial in carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that MDM2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)309, A2164G, and p53 codon 72 SNP are associated with risk and age at onset of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN). We genotyped these SNPs in a study of 1,083 Caucasian SCCHN cases and 1,090 cancer-free controls. Although none of these SNPs individually had a significant effect on risk of SCCHN, nor did their combined putative risk genotypes (i.e. MDM2 SNP309 GT + GG, 2164 AA, and p53 codon 72 CC), we found that individuals with 2–3 risk genotypes had significantly increased risk of non-oropharyngeal cancer (OR = 1.42; 95% CI=1.07–1.88). This increased risk was more pronounced among young subjects, men, smokers, and drinkers. In addition, female patients carrying the MDM2 SNP309 GT and GG genotypes showed a 3-year (56.7 years) and 9-year (51.2 years) earlier age at onset of non-oropharyngeal cancer (Ptrend = 0.007), respectively, compared with those carrying the TT genotype (60.1 years). The youngest age (42.5 years) at onset of non-oropharyngeal cancer was observed in female patients with the combined MDM2 SNP309 GG and p53 codon 72 CC genotypes. The findings suggest that MDM2 SNP309, A2164G, and p53 codon 72 SNPs may collectively contribute to non-oropharyngeal cancer risk and that MDM2 SNP309 individually or in combination with p53 codon 72 may accelerate the development of non-oropharyngeal cancer in women. Further studies with large sample sizes are warranted to validate these results.
PMCID: PMC3142329  PMID: 21656578
squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck; MDM2; p53; polymorphism; risk; age at onset
4.  Practical Signal-to-Noise Ratio Quantification for Sensitivity Encoding: Application to Coronary MRA 
To develop and evaluate a practical method for the quantification of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on coronary magnetic resonance angiograms (MRA) acquired with parallel imaging.
Materials and Methods
To quantify the spatially varying noise due to parallel imaging reconstruction, a new method has been implemented incorporating image data acquisition followed by a fast noise scan during which radiofrequency pulses, cardiac triggering and navigator gating are disabled. The performance of this method was evaluated in a phantom study where SNR measurements were compared to those of a reference standard (multiple repetitions). Subsequently, SNR of myocardium and posterior skeletal muscle was determined on in vivo human coronary MRA.
In a phantom, the SNR measured using the proposed method deviated less than 10.1% from the reference method for small geometry factors (<=2). In-vivo, the noise scan for a 10 minutes coronary MRA acquisition was acquired in 30s. Higher signal and lower SNR, due to spatially varying noise, were found in myocardium compared to posterior skeletal muscle.
SNR quantification based on a fast noise scan is a validated and easy-to-use method when applied to 3D coronary MRA obtained with parallel imaging as long as the geometry factor remains low.
PMCID: PMC3098458  PMID: 21591001
SNR measurement; parallel imaging; coronary MRA; phased array coils; image noise
5.  Mussel protein adhesion depends on thiol-mediated redox modulation 
Nature chemical biology  2011;7(9):588-590.
Mussel adhesion is mediated by foot proteins (mfp) rich in a catecholic amino acid, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), capable of forming strong bidentate interactions with a variety of surfaces. A facile tendency toward auto-oxidation, however, often renders dopa unreliable for adhesion. Mussels limit dopa oxidation during adhesive plaque formation by imposing an acidic, reducing regime based on thiol-rich mfp-6, which restores dopa by coupling the oxidation of thiols to dopaquinone reduction.
PMCID: PMC3158268  PMID: 21804534
6.  From Target Selection to the Minimum Acceptable Biological Effect Level for Human Study: Use of Mechanism-based PK/PD Modeling to Design Safe and Efficacious Biologics 
The AAPS Journal  2011;13(2):169-178.
In this paper, two applications of mechanism-based modeling are presented with their utility from candidate selection to first-in-human dosage selection. The first example is for a monoclonal antibody against a cytomegalovirus glycoprotein complex, which involves an antibody binding model and a viral load model. The model was used as part of a feasibility analysis prior to antibody generation, setting the specifications for the affinity needed to achieve a desired level of clinical efficacy. The second example is a pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model based on a single-dose pharmacology study in cynomolgus monkey using data on pharmacokinetics, receptor occupancy, and the dynamics of target cell depletion and recovery. The model was used to estimate the MABEL, here defined as the minimum acceptable biological effect level against which a dose is selected for a first-in-human study. From these applications, we demonstrate that mechanism-based PK/PD binding models are useful for predicting human response to biologics compounds. Especially, such models have the ability to integrate preclinical and clinical, in vitro and in vivo information and facilitate rational decision making during various stages of drug discovery and translational research.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-011-9256-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3085698  PMID: 21336535
biologics; candidate selection; first-in-human dosage selection; mechanism-based; pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model
7.  Wild-Type KRAS and BRAF Could Predict Response to Cetuximab in Chinese Colorectal Cancer Patients 
To analyze the relationship between KRAS, BRAF mutations and the response toCetuximab in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.
A total of273 Chinese colorectal cancer patients were evaluated for KRAS and BRAF mutations by Sanger sequencing. Among them, 59 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were treated with Cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy from August 2005 to July 2009. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between KRAS, BRAF mutations and the response or survival of 59 mCRC patients.
KRAS and BRAF mutation rates were 38.5% (105/273) and 5.1% (14/273), respectively, and KRAS/BRAF mutations were mutually exclusive. Among 59 patients treated with Cetuximab plus chemotherapy, KRAS and BRAF mutations were identified in 11and 5 patients, respectively. The response rates and median progression-free survivals (PFS) in KRAS wild-type and mutant patients were 35.4% (17/48) vs. 9.1% (1/11) (P=0.054) and 153 days vs. 99 days (P=0.01), respectively.Also, the response rates and median PFS in BRAF wild-type and mutant patients were 37.2% (16/43) vs. 20% (1/5) (P=0.016) and 138 days vs. 90 days (P=0.036), respectively.
Besides KRAS, assessing BRAF mutation should also be required to select patients eligible for Cetuximab. Further prospective evaluation in large samples should be performed to confirm these preliminary findings.
PMCID: PMC3551306  PMID: 23357879
KRAS; BRAF; Mutation; Cetuximab; Colorectal cancer
9.  NASA-Approved Rotary Bioreactor Enhances Proliferation of Human Epidermal Stem Cells and Supports Formation of 3D Epidermis-Like Structure 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e26603.
The skin is susceptible to different injuries and diseases. One major obstacle in skin tissue engineering is how to develop functional three-dimensional (3D) substitute for damaged skin. Previous studies have proved a 3D dynamic simulated microgravity (SMG) culture system as a “stimulatory” environment for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Here, we employed the NASA-approved rotary bioreactor to investigate the proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal stem cells (hEpSCs). hEpSCs were isolated from children foreskins and enriched by collecting epidermal stem cell colonies. Cytodex-3 micro-carriers and hEpSCs were co-cultured in the rotary bioreactor and 6-well dish for 15 days. The result showed that hEpSCs cultured in rotary bioreactor exhibited enhanced proliferation and viability surpassing those cultured in static conditions. Additionally, immunostaining analysis confirmed higher percentage of ki67 positive cells in rotary bioreactor compared with the static culture. In contrast, comparing with static culture, cells in the rotary bioreactor displayed a low expression of involucrin at day 10. Histological analysis revealed that cells cultured in rotary bioreactor aggregated on the micro-carriers and formed multilayer 3D epidermis structures. In conclusion, our research suggests that NASA-approved rotary bioreactor can support the proliferation of hEpSCs and provide a strategy to form multilayer epidermis structure.
PMCID: PMC3212516  PMID: 22096490
10.  Global Mapping of Cell Type–Specific Open Chromatin by FAIRE-seq Reveals the Regulatory Role of the NFI Family in Adipocyte Differentiation 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(10):e1002311.
Identification of regulatory elements within the genome is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern cell type–specific gene expression. We generated genome-wide maps of open chromatin sites in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (on day 0 and day 8 of differentiation) and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts using formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements coupled with high-throughput sequencing (FAIRE-seq). FAIRE peaks at the promoter were associated with active transcription and histone modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. Non-promoter FAIRE peaks were characterized by H3K4me1+/me3-, the signature of enhancers, and were largely located in distal regions. The non-promoter FAIRE peaks showed dynamic change during differentiation, while the promoter FAIRE peaks were relatively constant. Functionally, the adipocyte- and preadipocyte-specific non-promoter FAIRE peaks were, respectively, associated with genes up-regulated and down-regulated by differentiation. Genes highly up-regulated during differentiation were associated with multiple clustered adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks. Among the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks, 45.3% and 11.7% overlapped binding sites for, respectively, PPARγ and C/EBPα, the master regulators of adipocyte differentiation. Computational motif analyses of the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks revealed enrichment of a binding motif for nuclear family I (NFI) transcription factors. Indeed, ChIP assay showed that NFI occupy the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks and/or the PPARγ binding sites near PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2 genes. Overexpression of NFIA in 3T3-L1 cells resulted in robust induction of these genes and lipid droplet formation without differentiation stimulus. Overexpression of dominant-negative NFIA or siRNA–mediated knockdown of NFIA or NFIB significantly suppressed both induction of genes and lipid accumulation during differentiation, suggesting a physiological function of these factors in the adipogenic program. Together, our study demonstrates the utility of FAIRE-seq in providing a global view of cell type–specific regulatory elements in the genome and in identifying transcriptional regulators of adipocyte differentiation.
Author Summary
Humans consist of a few hundred types of specialized-function cells. Spatial and temporal transcriptional regulation of genes is essential for manifestation of cellular phenotypes. Identification of regulatory regions in the genome is central to understanding the mechanism of cell type–specific gene regulation. Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technology and computational analyses allow genome-wide investigation of the genome's chromatin structure. Using the FAIRE-seq technique, we identified the genome's open chromatin regions, which harbor regulatory elements in adipocytes. Open chromatin regions distal to genes' transcription start sites significantly differ among cell types. Multiple cell type–specific open chromatin regions exist near genes regulated during adipocyte differentiation. Computational motif analysis of adipocyte-specific open chromatin regions revealed enrichment of a binding motif for the NFI transcription factor family. These factors bind to the regulatory elements near adipogenic PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2 genes and regulate their expression. Overexpression of NFIA in 3T3-L1 cells resulted in robust induction of these genes and lipid droplet formation without differentiation stimulus and knockdown of NFIA or NFIB significantly suppressed both induction of genes and lipid accumulation during differentiation. Our study demonstrates the utility of FAIRE-seq in providing a global view of regulatory elements and in identifying transcriptional regulators of cellular functions.
PMCID: PMC3197683  PMID: 22028663
11.  Poly[tris­(μ3-2-amino­ethane­sulfonato)­cobalt(II)potassium] 
The title compound, [CoK(C2H6NO3S)3]n, is isotypic with its NiII analogue. The CoII atom is chelated by the three taurinate ligands in a distorted octa­hedral geometry and in a facial manner. Each taurinate ligand bridges two K+ ions via its sulfonate group, forming a three-dimensional framework. Weak N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is observed in the crystal structure.
PMCID: PMC3201518  PMID: 22058721
12.  Symptom-based tendencies of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with functional dyspepsia 
AIM: To investigate whether there were symptom-based tendencies in the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients.
METHODS: A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study of H. pylori eradication for FD was conducted. A total of 195 FD patients with H. pylori infection were divided into two groups: 98 patients in the treatment group were treated with rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily for 2 wk, amoxicillin 1.0 g and clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily for 1 wk; 97 patients in the placebo group were given placebos as control. Symptoms of FD, such as postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea, belching, epigastric pain and epigastric burning, were assessed 3 mo after H. pylori eradication.
RESULTS: By per-protocol analysis in patients with successful H. pylori eradication, higher effective rates of 77.2% and 82% were achieved in the patients with epigastric pain and epigastric burning than those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The effective rates for postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea and belching were 46%, 36%, 52.5% and 33.3%, respectively, and there was no significant difference from the placebo group (39.3%, 27.1%, 39.1% and 31.4%) (P > 0.05). In 84 patients who received H. pylori eradication therapy, the effective rates for epigastric pain (73.8%) and epigastric burning (80.7%) were higher than those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The effective rates for postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea and belching were 41.4%, 33.3%, 50% and 31.4%, respectively, and did not differ from those in the placebo group (P > 0.05). By intention-to-treat analysis, patients with epigastric pain and epigastric burning in the treatment group achieved higher effective rates of 60.8% and 65.7% than the placebo group (33.3% and 31.8%) (P < 0.05). The effective rates for postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea and belching were 34.8%, 27.9%, 41.1% and 26.7% respectively in the treatment group, with no significant difference from those in the placebo group (34.8%, 23.9%, 35.3% and 27.1%) (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The efficacy of H. pylori eradication has symptom-based tendencies in FD patients. It may be effective in the subgroup of FD patients with epigastric pain syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3158401  PMID: 21912474
Helicobacter pylori; Functional dyspepsia; Eradication; Symptom
13.  Bis{4-bromo-2-[(2-hy­droxy­eth­yl)imino­meth­yl]phenolato-κ3 O,N,O′}cadmium 
The centrosymmetric title compound, [Cd(C9H9BrNO2)2], was obtained by the reaction of 5-bromo­salicyl­aldehyde, 2-amino­ethanol and cadmium nitrate in ethanol. The Cd atom, located on an inversion centre, is hexa­coordinated by two Schiff base ligands in an octa­hedral coordination through the phenolate O atom, the imine N atom and the hy­droxy O atoms. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked through inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis.
PMCID: PMC3212126  PMID: 22090828
14.  Polymorphisms of Homologous Recombination Genes and Clinical Outcomes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Definitive Radiotherapy 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e20055.
The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is the major mechanism to maintain genomic stability in response to irradiation. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in DSB repair genes may affect clinical outcomes among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. We genotyped six potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (i.e., RAD51 −135G>C/rs1801320 and −172G>T/rs1801321, XRCC2 4234G>C/rs3218384 and R188H/rs3218536 G>A, XRCC3 T241M/rs861539 and NBN E185Q/rs1805794) and estimated their associations with overall survival (OS) and radiation pneumonitis (RP) in 228 NSCLC patients. We found a predictive role of RAD51 −135G>C SNP in RP development (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31–0.86, P = 0.010 for CG/CC vs. GG). We also found that RAD51 −135G>C and XRCC2 R188H SNPs were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (adjusted HR = 1.70, 95% CI, 1.14–2.62, P = 0.009 for CG/CC vs. GG; and adjusted HR = 1.70; 95% CI, 1.02–2.85, P = 0.043 for AG vs. GG, respectively) and that the SNP-survival association was most pronounced in the presence of RP. Our study suggests that HR genetic polymorphisms, particularly RAD51 −135G>C, may influence overall survival and radiation pneumonitis in NSCLC patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. Large studies are needed to confirm our findings.
PMCID: PMC3102071  PMID: 21647442
15.  Thymidine Phosphorylase/β-tubulin III expressions predict the response in Chinese advanced gastric cancer patients receiving first-line capecitabine plus paclitaxel 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:177.
To assess the role of Thymidine Phosphorylase and β-tubulin III in clinical outcome of Chinese advanced gastric cancer patients receiving first-line capecitabine plus paclitaxel.
The clinical data and tumor biopsies prior treatment from 33 advanced gastric cancer patients receiving capecitabine plus paclitaxel (cohort 1, experimental group) and 18 patients receiving capecitabine plus cisplatin (cohort 2, control group) in Beijing Cancer Hospital from July 2003 to December 2008 were retrospectively collected and analyzed for Thymidine Phosphorylase and β-tubulin III expressions by immunohistochemistry. The relationships between expressions of biomarkers and response or survival were determined by statistical analysis.
The median age of 51 patients was 57 years (range, 27-75) with male 34 and female 17, and the response rate, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 43.1%, 120d and 265d. Among cohort 1, the response rate, median progression-free survival and overall survival in β-tubulin III positive (n = 22) and negative patients (n = 11) were 36.4%/72.7% (positive vs negative, P = 0.049), 86d/237d (P = 0.046) and 201d/388d (P = 0.029), respectively; the response rate (87.5% vs 14.3%, P = 0.01) and median progression-free survival (251d vs 84d, P = 0.003) in Thymidine Phosphorylase positive & β-tubulin III negative patients (n = 8) were also significantly higher than those in Thymidine Phosphorylase negative & β-tubulin III positive patients (n = 7). There was no correlation between β-tubulin III expression and response or survival among cohort 2 (n = 18).
In Chinese advanced gastric cancer, Thymidine Phosphorylase positive & β-tubulin III negative might predict response and prognosis to capecitabine plus paclitaxel chemotherapy. Further prospective evaluation in large samples should be performed to confirm these preliminary findings.
PMCID: PMC3112163  PMID: 21586171
16.  MiR-148a inhibits angiogenesis by targeting ERBB3☆ 
Journal of Biomedical Research  2011;25(3):170-177.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in carcinogenesis in various solid cancers including breast cancer. Down-regulation of microRNA-148a (miR-148a) has been reported in certain cancer types. However, the biological role of miR-148a and its related targets in breast cancer are unknown yet. In this study, we showed that the level of miR-148a was lower in MCF7 cells than that in MCF10A cells. V-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (ERBB3) is a direct target of miR-148a in human breast cancer cells through direct binding of miR-148a to ERBB3 3′-UTR region. Overexpression of miR-148a in MCF7 cells inhibited ERBB3 expression, blocked the downstream pathway activation including activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1, and decreased HIF-1α expression. Furthermore, forced expression of miR-148a attenuated tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Our results identify ERBB3 as a direct target of miR-148a, and provide direct evidence that miR-148a inhibits tumor angiogenesis through ERBB3 and its downstream signaling molecules. This information would be helpful for targeting the miR-148a/ERBB3 pathway for breast cancer prevention and treatment in the future.
PMCID: PMC3597061  PMID: 23554686
breast cancer; microRNA-148a; angiogenesis; ERBB3
17.  Poly[[diaqua­(μ2-1,4-dioxane-κ2 O:O′)(μ2-2,3,5,6-tetra­fluoro­benzene-1,4-dicarboxyl­ato-κ2 O 1:O 4)copper(II)] 1,4-dioxane disolvate dihydrate] 
In the title complex, {[Cu(C8F4O4)(C4H8O2)(H2O)2]·2C4H8O2·2H2O}n, the CuII ion is six-coordinated by two oxygen donors from two trans 2,3,5,6-tetra­fluoro-1,4-dicarboxyl­ate (BDC-F4) ligands, two O atoms from two chair 1,4-dioxane ligands and two O atoms from two terminal water mol­ecules, adopting a distorted octa­hedral coordinated geometry. Each BDC-F4 anion bridges two CuII ions in a bis-monodentate fashion, forming a [Cu(BDC-F4)]n chain. These chains are further linked by bridging 1,4-dioxane ligands, generating a two-dimensional net with approximately recta­ngular grids of 11.253 × 7.654 Å. Such adjacent parallel layers are connected by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between guest water mol­ecules and the uncoordinated carboxyl­ate O atoms and coordinated water mol­ecules into the final three-dimensional supra­molecular network.
PMCID: PMC3089286  PMID: 21754269
18.  Mobilization of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Using Regimen Combining Docetaxel with Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor in Breast Cancer Patients 
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the mobilization of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells by combining docetaxel with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in breast cancer patients.
A total of 57 breast cancer patients were treated with docetaxel 120 mg/m2. When the white blood cell (WBC) count decreased to 1.0×109/L, patients were given G-CSF 5 μg/kg daily by subcutaneous injection until the end of apheresis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were isolated by Cobe Spectra Apheresis System. The percentage of CD34+ cell was assayed by flow cytometry.
At a median 6 of days (range 3-8) after the administration of docetaxel, the median WBC count decreased to 1.08×109/L (range 0.20-2.31). The median duration of G-CSF mobilization was 3 days (range 2-7). The MNC collection was conducted 8-12 days (median 10 days) after docetaxel treatment. The median MNC was 5.35×108/kg (range 0.59-14.07), the median CD34+ cell count was 2.43×106/kg (range 0.16-16.69). The CD34+ cell count was higher than 1.00×106/kg in 47 of 57 cases (82.46%) and higher than 2.00×106/kg in 36 cases (63.16%). The CD34+ cell count was higher than 2.00×106/kg in 27 collections (23.68%). The MNC count and the CD34+ cell count were correlated with the bottom of WBC after docetaxel chemotherapy (r=0.364, 0.502, P=0.005, 0.000). The CD34+ cell count was correlated with the MNC count (r=0.597, P=0.000). The mobilization and apheresis were well tolerated in all patients. Mild perioral numbness and numbness of hand or feet were observed in 3 cases. No serious adverse events were reported.
Mobilization of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell by combining docetaxel with G-CSF was effective and safety in breast cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3587530  PMID: 23467566
Docetaxel; Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF); Mobilization; Stem cell
22.  Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants*  
Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH4 +) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO3 −)-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH4 +-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) level, transpiration rate, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and O2-independent alternative electron flux, and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux. However, the N source had little effect on gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence parameters, and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants, except that NH4 +-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3 −-grown plants. NO3 − reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4 +-grown cucumber plants, but was high in NH4 +-grown rice plants. These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3 − assimilation, an effect more significant in NO3 −-grown plants than in NH4 +-grown plants. Meanwhile, NH4 +-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for NO3 − reduction, regardless of the N form supplied, while NH4 +-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4 + was supplied as the sole N source.
PMCID: PMC3030957  PMID: 21265044
Nitrogen form; Photosynthetic electron allocation; Alternative electron flux; Nitrate reductase
23.  Polymorphisms in the SULF1 gene are associated with early age of onset and survival of ovarian cancer 
SULF1 (sulfatase 1) selectively removes the 6-O-sulphate group from heparan sulfate, changing the binding sites for extracellular growth factors. SULF1 expression has been reported to be decreased in various cancers, including ovarian cancer. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SULF1 would impact clinicopathologic characteristics.
We genotyped five common (minor allele frequency>0.05) regulatory SNPs with predicted functionalities (rs2623047 G>A, rs13264163 A>G, rs6990375 G>A, rs3802278 G>A, and rs3087714 C>T) in 168 patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer, using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.
We found that rs2623047 G>A was significantly associated with an early age of onset of ovarian cancer in the G allele dose-response manner (P = 0.027; Ptrend = 0.007) and that rs2623047 GG/GA genotypes were associated with longer progression-free survival; rs6990375 G>A was also associated with the early age of onset in the A allele dose-response manner (P = 0.013; Ptrend= 0.009). The significant differences in age of disease onset persisted among carriers of haplotypes of rs2623047 and rs6990375 (P = 0.014; Ptrend = 0.004). In luciferase reporter gene assays, rs2623047 G allele showed a slightly higher promoter activity than the A allele in the SKOV3 tumorigenic cell line.
These findings suggest that genetic variations in SULF1 may play a role in ovarian cancer onset and prognosis. Further studies with large sample sizes and of the mechanistic relevance of SULF1 SNPs are warranted.
PMCID: PMC3025876  PMID: 21214932
24.  Pro370Leu myocilin mutation in a Chinese pedigree with juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma 
Molecular Vision  2011;17:1449-1456.
To investigate the genotype and phenotype of juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG) in a Chinese family (PN pedigree).
Each family member was comprehensively examined by an experienced ophthalmologist. The clinical characteristics of the family patients with JOAG were documented. Blood samples were obtained from 22 available participants from the PN pedigree. Linkage analysis was performed to identify the possible chromosome loci. The presence of gene mutation was ascertained by polymerase chain reaction amplification and subsequent direct sequencing.
The affected members in the PN pedigree are characterized by early age of onset (mean age at diagnosis is 17 years old), severe clinical presentations, high intraocular pressure (mean IOP of 34.18±2.97 mmHg), and poor response to pharmacological treatment (87.5% of the patients required filtering surgery). The region on chromosome 1 between D1S3464 and D1S1619 was identified in this pedigree by linkage analysis. A Pro370Leu myocilin mutation resulting from a heterozygous C→T transition at the 1,109th nucleotide in exon 3 was detected by gene sequencing. The Pro370Leu mutation co-segregated among all affected individuals of PN pedigree.
The GLC1A Pro370Leu mutation is firmly correlated with a severe POAG phenotype. These data provide clues for the severe disease-causing nature of the Pro370Leu allele. Gene screening may be a useful method for pre-symptom diagnosis and a forewarning to detect the at-risk individuals in familial open-angle glaucoma patients, especially in pedigrees of early-onset.
PMCID: PMC3110496  PMID: 21677793
25.  Anti-proliferation effects of Sirolimus sustained delivery film in rabbit glaucoma filtration surgery 
Molecular Vision  2011;17:2495-2506.
To investigate the efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of Sirolimus sustained delivery film on prevention of scar formation in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery.
Sixty-four New Zealand white rabbits who underwent trabeculectomy in the right eye were randomly allocated to one of the four treatment regimens: Sirolimus sustained delivery film treatment group (Group A), or drug-free film treatment group (Group B), or 30 ng/ml Sirolimus-soaked sponge treatment group (Group C), or no adjunctive treatment group (Group D), and each group consists of 16 rabbits. Intraocular pressure (IOP), morphologic changes of bleb, anterior chamber flare, and corneal endothelial cell count and complications were evaluated over a 28-day period follow-up time. Aqueous humor samples were gathered from Group A, and the concentration of Sirolimus was measured regularly post-operation. Rabbits were sacrificed on the 7th, 14th, and 28th day post-operation separately, and the fibroblast hypertrophy, infiltration of inflammatory, and proliferation of new collagen fiber formation in each group were evaluated with HE and Masson staining. Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and fibroblast apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay at the 28th day post-operation.
Both Sirolimus sustained delivery film (Group A) and Sirolimus alone (Group C) were well tolerated in this model, and significantly prolonged bleb survival compared with no drug treatment group (Group B and D; p<0.001). Group A had the longest bleb survival time in comparison with other groups (p<0.001). There were significant differences in IOP readings between Group A and other groups at the last follow-up (p<0.05). The concentration of Group A maintained stable for over 2 weeks, drops from (10.56 ±0.05) ng/ml at day 3 to (7.74 ±0.05) ng/ml at day 14. The number of corneal endothelial cells of Group A was not statistically significant between pre and post-operation. Histologic examination demonstrated that eyes treated with Sirolimus, especially the Sirolimus sustained delivery film, showed an obvious reduction in subconjunctival fibroblast scar tissue formation compared with no drug treatment groups, and had minimal evidence of inflammatory cell infiltration and new collagen deposition in the subconjunctiva. Immunohistochemistry assay showed that PCNA-expression was lower in the Group A (16.25±3.24%) compared to other groups (p<0.01). TUNEL assay showed a significant increase in the number of apoptotic fibroblasts around the surgical area in Group A and Group C (9.75±1.71% and 8.50±1.92%) compared to the Group B and D (p<0.01).
Sirolimus drug sustained delivery film can inhibit inflammatory cell activity, impede fibroblast proliferation activity, and induce fibroblast apoptosis in the filtration surgery sites in rabbit. The results indicate a safe and effective treatment strategy in anti-scaring treatment in glaucoma surgery.
PMCID: PMC3185021  PMID: 21976960

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