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1.  Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(48):18296-18305.
AIM: To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics.
METHODS: A serum-free medium (SFM) suspension was used to culture esophageal cancer stem cell lines and enrich the esophageal stem-like spheres. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect stem cell gene expression in the spheroid cells. Radiosensitivity of stem-like spheres and parental cells were evaluated by clonogenic assays. Furthermore, different cells after different doses of irradiation were tested to evaluate the change in sphere formation, cell cycle and CD44+CD271+ expression of tumor stem-like spheroid cells using flow cytometry before and after irradiation.
RESULTS: The cells were observed to generate an increased number of spheres in SFM with increasing cell passage. Radiation increased the rate of generation of stem-like spheres in both types of cells. The average survival fraction (SF2) of the cultured KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 stem-like spheres after 2 Gy of radiation was 0.81 ± 0.03 vs 0.87 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05), while the average SF2 of KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 parental cells was 0.69 ± 0.04 vs 0.80 ± 0.03, P < 0.05. In the esophageal parental cells, irradiation dose-dependently induced G2 arrest. Stem-like esophageal spheres were resistant to irradiation-induced G2 arrest without significant changes in the percentage population of irradiated stem-like cells. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE150 parental cells was 1.08% ± 0.03% vs 1.29% ± 0.07% vs 1.11% ± 0.09%, respectively; the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for TE1 parental cells was 1.16% ± 0.11% vs 0.97% ± 0.08% vs 1.45% ± 0.35%, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE-150 stem-like spheres was 35.83% ± 1.23% vs 44.9% ± 1.67% vs 57.77% ± 1.88%, respectively; the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for TE1 stem-like spheres was 16.07% ± 0.91% vs 22.67% ± 1.12%, 16.07% ± 0.91% vs 33.27% ± 1.07%, respectively. The 4 and 8 Gy irradiated KYSE-150 and TE-1 stem-like spheres were compared with the 0 Gy irradiated group, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The KYSE-150 and TE-1 stem-like spheres are more radioresistant than their parental cells which may suggest that cancer stem cells are related to radioresistance.
PMCID: PMC4277966  PMID: 25561796
Esophageal neoplasms; Radiation resistance; Neoplastic stem cell; Cell spheres; Cell cycle
2.  Meta-analysis of the efficacy of probiotics in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(47):18013-18021.
AIM: To evaluate the role of probiotics in the standard triple Helicobacter pylori therapy.
METHODS: In this meta-analysis, we investigated the efficacy of probiotics in a standard triple H. pylori therapy in adults. Searches were mainly conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Fourteen studies met our criteria, and the quality of these studies was assessed using the Jadad scale. We used STATA version 12.0 to extract data and to calculate the odds ratios (ORs), which are presented with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The data are presented as forest plots.
RESULTS: The pooled ORs for the eradication rates calculated by intention-to-treat analysis and per-protocol analysis in the probiotic group vs the control group were 1.67 (95%CI: 1.38-2.02) and 1.68 (95%CI: 1.35-2.08), respectively, using the fixed-effects model. The sensitivity of the Asian studies was greater than that of the Caucasian studies (Asian: OR = 1.78, 95%CI: 1.40-2.26; Caucasian: OR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.06-2.05). The pooled OR for the incidence of total adverse effects was significantly lower in the probiotic group (OR = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.26-0.94), using the random effects model, with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 85.7%). The incidence of diarrhea was significantly reduced in the probiotic group (OR = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.06-0.74), whereas the incidence of taste disorders, metallic taste, vomiting, nausea, and epigastric pain did not differ significantly between the probiotic group and the control group.
CONCLUSION: Supplementary probiotic preparations during standard triple H. pylori therapy may improve the eradication rate, particularly in Asian patients, and the incidence of total adverse effects.
PMCID: PMC4273153  PMID: 25548501
Helicobacter pylori; Eradication; Probiotics; Meta-analysis; Adult
3.  Clinical trial of thalidomide combined with radiotherapy in patients with esophageal cancer 
AIM: To investigate the short-term efficacy and tolerability of radiotherapy plus thalidomide in patients with esophageal cancer (EC).
METHODS: Serum samples from 86 EC patients were collected before, during, and after radiotherapy, and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level was examined by ELISA. According to the change in serum VEGF level during radiotherapy, the patients were divided into two groups: in the drug group, VEGF level was increased or remained unchanged, and thalidomide was administered up to the end of radiotherapy; in the non-drug group, VEGF level was decreased and radiotherapy was given alone. Thirty healthy volunteers served as controls. The efficacy and safety of radiotherapy plus thalidomide therapy were investigated.
RESULTS: The 86 EC patients had a significantly higher level of VEGF compared with the 30 healthy controls before radiotherapy (P < 0.01), and the VEGF level was significantly correlated with primary tumor size, lymph node metastasis, histopathologic type, and clinical stage (P < 0.01). Of 83 evaluable cases, VEGF level was significantly decreased after radiotherapy in 32 patients in the drug group (P < 0.05), with an effective rate of 71.88%. The incidence of dizziness and/or burnout in the drug group and non-drug group was 62.50% and 15.69%, respectively (P = 0.000), and the incidence of somnolence was 12.50% and 0%, respectively (P = 0.019). No significant differences were observed.
CONCLUSION: Thalidomide can down-regulate serum VEGF level in EC patients, and combined with radiotherapy may improve treatment outcome. Thalidomide was well tolerated by EC patients.
PMCID: PMC4009547  PMID: 24803825
Thalidomide; Radiotherapy; Esophageal cancer; Vascular endothelial growth factor
4.  Symptom-based tendencies of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with functional dyspepsia 
AIM: To investigate whether there were symptom-based tendencies in the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients.
METHODS: A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study of H. pylori eradication for FD was conducted. A total of 195 FD patients with H. pylori infection were divided into two groups: 98 patients in the treatment group were treated with rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily for 2 wk, amoxicillin 1.0 g and clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily for 1 wk; 97 patients in the placebo group were given placebos as control. Symptoms of FD, such as postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea, belching, epigastric pain and epigastric burning, were assessed 3 mo after H. pylori eradication.
RESULTS: By per-protocol analysis in patients with successful H. pylori eradication, higher effective rates of 77.2% and 82% were achieved in the patients with epigastric pain and epigastric burning than those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The effective rates for postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea and belching were 46%, 36%, 52.5% and 33.3%, respectively, and there was no significant difference from the placebo group (39.3%, 27.1%, 39.1% and 31.4%) (P > 0.05). In 84 patients who received H. pylori eradication therapy, the effective rates for epigastric pain (73.8%) and epigastric burning (80.7%) were higher than those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The effective rates for postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea and belching were 41.4%, 33.3%, 50% and 31.4%, respectively, and did not differ from those in the placebo group (P > 0.05). By intention-to-treat analysis, patients with epigastric pain and epigastric burning in the treatment group achieved higher effective rates of 60.8% and 65.7% than the placebo group (33.3% and 31.8%) (P < 0.05). The effective rates for postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea and belching were 34.8%, 27.9%, 41.1% and 26.7% respectively in the treatment group, with no significant difference from those in the placebo group (34.8%, 23.9%, 35.3% and 27.1%) (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The efficacy of H. pylori eradication has symptom-based tendencies in FD patients. It may be effective in the subgroup of FD patients with epigastric pain syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3158401  PMID: 21912474
Helicobacter pylori; Functional dyspepsia; Eradication; Symptom
5.  Effect of Lianshu preparation on lipopolysaccharide-induced diarrhea in rats 
AIM: To investigate the effect of Lianshu preparation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced diarrhea in rats.
METHODS: A diarrhea model was established in Sprague Dawley rats via injection of 1 mL of 30 mg/kg LPS. A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into normal group, LPS group, LPS + Lianshu group, LPS + berberine group (n = 10 in each group). Their intestinal mucosal barrier and frequency of diarrhea were observed. Levels of glucose, serum Na+, K+, Cl- and hematocrit, plasma nitrogen monoxide (NO), diamine oxidase (DAO), and D (-)-lactate were measured. The number of IgA+ plasma cells in small intestine was detected and SIgA levels in the intestinal fluid were measured. The antipyretic activity of Lianshu preparation in rats was evaluated using Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia (10 mL/kg of 20% aqueous suspension). Acetaminophen (250 mg/kg, intragastric administration, bid) was used as a standard drug for comparison. Temperature was recorded 1 h before and 6 h after Brewer’s yeast injection. Finally, small intestinal transmission in mice treated with Lianshu was detected after intraperitoneal injection of methyl prostigmin (2 mg/kg). Atropine (10 g/kg) was used as a control. The ink content in intestine was determined and the total length of intestine was measured.
RESULTS: The frequency of diarrhea was higher in LPS group than in LPS + Lianshu group and LPS + berberine group (36.70 ± 5.23 vs 28.50 ± 4.06 and 32.70 ± 9.30 respectively, P < 0.01), and lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (P = 0.03). The levels of Na+, glucose, Cl-, K+ were significantly lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (140.35 ± 3.19 mmol/L vs 131.99 ± 4.86 mmol/L, 8.49 ± 1.84 mmol/L vs 6.54 ± 2.30 mmol/L, 106.29 ± 4.41 mmol/L vs 102.5 ± 1.39 mmol/L, 5.08 ± 0.66 mmol/L vs 4.32 ± 0.62 mmol/L respectively, P < 0.05). The level of hematocrit was lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (0.50% ± 0.07% vs 0.59% ± 0.10% respectively, P < 0.05). The plasma levels of NO, DAO and D (-)-lactate were higher in LPS group than in normal group (79.74 ± 7.39 μmol/L vs 24.94 ± 3.38 μmol/L, 2.48 ± 0.42 μ/mL vs 0.82 ± 0.33 μ/mL, 5.63 ± 0.85 μg/mL vs 2.01 ± 0.32 μg/mL respectively, P < 0.01), and lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (48.59 ± 4.70 μmol/L vs 51.56 ± 8.38 μmol/L, 1.43 ± 0.53 μmol/mL vs 1.81 ± 0.42 μmol/mL, 4.00 ± 0.54 μg/mL vs 4.88 ± 0.77 μg/mL respectively, P < 0.05). The morphology of the intestinal mucosa showed destroyed villi in LPS group and atrophied intestinal mucosa in other groups. The pathological intestinal mucosal changes were less in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS group. The number of IgA+ plasma cells and amount of SIgA were higher in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS group (1.16 ± 0.19/μm2 vs 1.09 ± 0.28/μm2, P = 0.026; 0.59 ± 0.12 mg/L vs 0.15 ± 0.19 mg/L respectively, P = 0.000). Lianshu had counteractive effects on yeast-induced pyrexia and enterokinesia in rats.
CONCLUSION: Lianshu preparation has therapeutic effects on LPS-induced diarrhea and enterokinesia in rats.
PMCID: PMC2675093  PMID: 19399935
Lianshu preparation; Lipopolysaccharide; Diarrhea; Nitrogen monoxide; D-lactate
6.  Establishment and characterization of a new cell line derived from human colorectal laterally spreading tumor 
AIM: To study the molecular mechanism of laterally spreading tumor (LST), a cell line [Laterally Spreading Tumor-Rectum 1 (LST-R1)] was derived and the characteristics of this cell line were investigated.
METHODS: A new cell line (LST-R1) originated from laterally spreading tumor was established. Properties of the cell line were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry method, cytogenetic analysis and nude mice xenograft experiments. In vitro invasion assay, cDNA microarray and Western blotting were used to compare the difference between the LST-R1 and other colorectal cancer cell lines derived from prudent colon cancer.
RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that both epithelial special antigen (ESA) and cytokeratin-20 (CK20) were expressed in LST-R1. The cells presented microvilli and tight junction with large nuclei. The karyotypic analysis showed hyperdiploid features with structural chromosome aberrations. The in vivo tumorigenicity was also demonstrated in nude mice xenograft experiments. The invasion assay suggested this cell line has a higher invasive ability. cDNA microarray and Western blotting show the loss of the expression of E-cadherin in LST-R1 cells.
CONCLUSION: We established and characterized a colorectal cancer cell line, LST-R1 and LST-R1 has an obvious malignant tendency, which maybe partially attributed to the changes of the expression of some adhesion molecules, such as E-cadherin. It is also a versatile tool for exploring the original and progressive mechanisms of laterally spreading tumor and the early colon cancer genesis.
PMCID: PMC2690667  PMID: 18300345
LST-R1; Cell line; Invasion; E-cadherin
7.  In vivo anti-tumor effect of hybrid vaccine of dendritic cells and esophageal carcinoma cells on esophageal carcinoma cell line 109 in mice with severe combined immune deficiency 
AIM: To develop a fusion vaccine of esophageal carcinoma cells and dendritic cells (DC) and observe its protective and therapeutic effect against esophageal carcinoma cell line 109 (EC109).
METHODS: The fusion vaccine was produced by fusing traditional polyethyleneglycol (PEG), inducing cytokine, sorting CD34+ magnetic microbead marker and magnetic cell system (MACS). The liver, spleen and lung were pathologically tested after injection of the fusion vaccine. To study the therapeutic and protective effect of the fusion vaccine against tumor EC109, mice were divided immune group and therapeutic group. The immune group was divided into P, E, D and ED subgroups, immunized by phosphate buffered solution (PBS), inactivated EC109, DC and the fusion vaccine respectively, and attacked by EC109 cells. The tumor size, weight, latent period and mouse survival period were recorded and statistically analyzed. The therapeutic group was divided into four subgroups: P, inactivated EC109, D and ED subgroups, which were attacked by EC109 and then treated with PBS, inactivated EC109, DC, and EC109-DC respectively. Pathology and flow cytometry were also used to study the therapeutic effect of the fusion vaccine against EC109 cells.
RESULTS: Flow cytometry showed that the expression of folate receptor (FR), EC109 (C), DCs (D) in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (HNE1) (B) was 78.21%, 89.50%, and 0.18%, respectively. The fusion cells (C) were highly expressed. No tumor was found in the spleen, lung and liver after injection of the fusion vaccine. Human IgG was tested in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In the immune group, the latent period was longer in EC109-DC subgroup than in other subgroups, while the tumor size and weight were also smaller than those in ED subgroup. In the therapeutic group, the tumor size and weight were smaller in ED subgroup than in P, inactivated EC109 and DC subgroups.
CONCLUSION: Fusion cells are highly expressed not only in FR but also in CD80. The fusion vaccine has a distinctive protective effect against tumor EC109 and can inhibit the growth of tumor in mice, and its immune protection against tumor attack is more significant.
PMCID: PMC2690663  PMID: 18300341
Dendritic cells; Esophageal carcinoma cells; Cell fusion; Immune protection; Immunotherapy
8.  Genetic polymorphism of UL144 open reading frame of human cytomegalovirus DNA detected in colon samples from infants with Hirschsprung’s disease 
AIM: To explore the genetic diversities of UL144 open reading frame (ORF) of cytomegalovirus DNA detected in colon tissue from infants with Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) by sequencing UL144 DNA in 23 aganglionic colon tissue and 4 urine samples from 25 HD infants.
METHODS: Nest PCR was performed for amplification of the UL144 gene. The UL144 gene was analyzed with softwares, such as DNAclub, BioEdit, PROSITE database, and DNAstar.
RESULTS: The strains from HD patients were distributed among three genotypes of UL144: group 1A (64%), group 2 (24%), and group 3 (12%). The UL144 genotypes between strains from HD and control group were compared by chi square test (χ2 = 1.870, P = 0.393). Strains from the colon were sporadically distributed in UL144 genotypes.
CONCLUSION: There are genetic diversities of UL144 ORF in colon tissue of infants with HD. However, cytomegalovirus UL144 genotypes are not associated with clinical manifestations of HD.
PMCID: PMC4250863  PMID: 17708610
Hirschsprung’s disease; Cytomegalovirus; UL144 gene; Polymorphism
9.  Kinase domain insert containing receptor promoter controlled suicide gene system selectively kills human umbilical vein endothelial cells 
AIM: To study the selective killing of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by a double suicide gene under the regulation of a kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter and mediated by an adenoviral gene vector.
METHODS: Human KDR promoter was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and two recombinant adenoviral plasmids pAdKDR-CdglyTK, pAdCMV-CDglyTK were constructed according to a two-step transformation protocol. These two newly constructed plasmids were then transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow adenovirus, which were further multiplied and purified. HUVECs and LoVo cells were infected with either of the two resultant recombinant adenoviruses (AdKDR-CDglyTK and AdCMV-CDglyTK) respectively, and the infection rates were estimated by detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. Infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ganciclovir (GCV), and the killing effects were measured.
RESULTS: The two recombinant adenoviral plasmids pAdKDR-CdglyTK, pAdCMV-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and transfected into 293 cells. The resultant recombinant adenoviruses infected cells caused similar infection rates; and the infected cells exhibited different sensitivity to the prodrugs: HUVECs infected with AdCMV-CDglyTK and LoVo cells infected with AdCMV-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to the prodrugs, and HUVECs infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were similarly sensitive but significantly more sensitive than the LoVo cells infected with AdKDR-CdglyTK (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Selective killing of HUVECs may be achieved by gene transfer of double suicide gene under the regulation of the KDR promoter. This finding may provide an optional way to target gene therapy of malignant tumors by abrogation of tumor blood vessels.
PMCID: PMC4088200  PMID: 16981263
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells; Double suicide gene system; Targeted killing
10.  Kinase domain insert containing receptor promotor controlled suicide gene system kills human umbilical vein endothelial cells 
AIM: To evaluate the killing effect of double suicide gene mediated by adenovirus and regulated under kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
METHODS: By PCR technology, human KDR promoter gene, Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the herpes simple virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene were cloned. Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with them. Then, a recombinant adenoviral plasmid pAdKDR-CDglyTK was constructed in a “two-step transformation protocol”. The newly constructed plasmids were transfected to 293 packaging cells to grow adenoviruses, which were further propagated and purified. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were infected with a different multiplicity of infection (MOI) of resultant recombinant adenovirus, the infection rate was measured with the aid of (GFP) expression. Infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of (GCV) and/or 5-(FC), and the killing effects were measured.
RESULTS: Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed, and they infected HUVEC cells efficiently. Our data indicated that the infection rate was relevant to MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. HUVEC cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to the prodrugs, their survival rate correlated to both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. Our data also indicated that the two prodrugs used in combination were much more effective on killing transgeneic cells than GCV or 5-FC used alone.
CONCLUSION: Prodrug/KDR-CDglyTK system is effective on killing HUVEC cells, its killing effect correlates to the concentration of prodrugs and recombinant adenovirus’ MOI. Combined use of the two prodrugs confers better killing effects on transgeneic cells.
PMCID: PMC4316017  PMID: 15968721
Suicide gene; Adenovirus
11.  Trial of a novel endoscopic tattooing biopsy forceps on animal model 
AIM: To tattoo gastric mucosa with a novel medical device which could be used to monitor and follow-up gastric mucosal lesions.
METHODS: Combining endoscopic biopsy with sclerotherapy injection, we designed a new device that could perform biopsy and injection simultaneously. We performed endoscopies on a pig by using a novel endoscope tattoo biopsy forceps for 15 mo. At the same time, we used two-step method combining sclerotherapy injection needle with endoscopic biopsy. The acuity, inflammation and duration of endoscopy were compared between two methods.
RESULTS: Compared with the old two-step method, although the inflammation induced by our new device was similar, the duration of procedure was markedly decreased and the acuity of tattooing was better than the old two-step method. All characteristics of the novel device complied with national safety guidelines. Follow-up gastroscopy after 15 mo showed the stained site with injection of 1:100 0.5 mL of India ink was still markedly visible with little inflammatory reaction.
CONCLUSION: Endoscopic tattooing biopsy forceps can be widely used in monitoring precancerous lesions. Its safety and effectiveness has been established in animals.
PMCID: PMC4305891  PMID: 15793881
Gastric mucosa; Endoscopy; Lesions

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