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1.  Culture medium of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells effects lymphatic endothelial cells and tumor lymph vessel formation 
Oncology Letters  2015;9(3):1221-1226.
Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) favor tumor growth and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Neovascularization is involved in several pathological conditions, including tumor growth and metastasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that human bone marrow MSC-derived conditioned medium (hBM-MSC-CM) can promote tumor growth by inducing the expression of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells. However, the effect of BM-MSCs on tumor lymph vessel formation has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of BM-MSCs on processes involved in lymph vessel formation, including tube formation, migration and proliferation, was investigated in human-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs). It was identified that hBM-MSC-CM promoted the tube formation and migration of HDLECs. In addition, tumor cells were revealed to participate in lymph vessel formation. In the present study, the SGC-7901, HGC-27 and GFP-MCF-7 cell lines were treated with hBM-MSC-CM. The results demonstrated that the expression of the lymph-associated markers, prospero homeobox protein 1 and VEGF receptor-3, were increased in the SGC-7901 and HGC-27 cell lines, but not in the GFP-MCF-7 cells. The tube formation assay demonstrated that the HGC-27 cells treated with hBM-MSC-CM for 20 days underwent tube formation. These findings indicate that hBM-MSC-CM can promote tube formation in HDLECs and HGC-27 cells, which may be associated with lymph vessel formation during tumor growth and metastasis.
PMCID: PMC4315037  PMID: 25663886
mesenchymal stem cell; lymph vessel; tumor growth
2.  Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human gastric carcinoma 
Oncology Letters  2014;9(2):915-919.
The present report investigated the correlation between the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in gastric carcinoma patients and the clinicopathological characteristics. Forty-five samples of gastric carcinoma and distal gastric mucosa tissue, and 10 samples of healthy gastric mucosa tissue were analyzed using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as immunohistochemical and hematoxylin and eosin staining. MMP-9 protein levels in serum samples from the same patients were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The present report identified that MMP-9 expression was markedly higher in the gastric carcinoma tissue (86.67%) than in the adjacent healthy tissue (10.00%). A positive association was identified between the level of MMP-9 protein expression and the depth of cancer invasion (P<0.05). Furthermore, the preoperative serum levels of the MMP-9 protein in the gastric carcinoma tissue were correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage and occurrence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Data from the present report indicates that MMP-9 may be key in gastric carcinoma malignancy, and implies that MMP-9 may serve as a novel biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC4301519  PMID: 25621068
gastric carcinoma; matrix metalloproteinases-9; semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction; immunohistochemistry; malignancy
3.  Correlation of obesity and osteoporosis: Effect of free fatty acids on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation 
Studies on the relationship between obesity and bone have recently become widespread. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on bone, utilizing a diet-induced obese mouse model, and to explore the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the osteogenesis/adipogenesis of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). An obese mouse model was established by a high-fat diet (HFD). Proximal femurs were collected at sacrifice, and bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal femurs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone histomorphometry was performed using undecalcified sections of the proximal femurs. The effect of obesity on the differentiation of mouse BMSCs was assessed by colony formation assays and gene expression analysis. In vitro, various osteogenic and adipogenic genes were determined by real-time quantitative PCR in mouse BMSCs after exposure to conditioned medium (CM) from FFA-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Western blotting was further performed to analyze the representative protein expression of PPARγ and Runx2. BMD and trabecular thickness were significantly greater in the HFD mice than in the control mice. CFU-osteo assay showed significantly increased osteogenesis of BMSCs. The mRNA level of Runx2 was significantly higher, while PPARγ and Pref-1 were significantly lower in BMSCs from the HFD mice compared to the control mice. In mouse BMSCs, the Sox9 and Runx2 genes were significantly up-regulated after exposure to CM from FFA-treated adipocytes, while PPARγ and CEBP-α were significantly down-regulated. Osteogenesis was significantly increased, while adipogenesis was significantly decreased. In conclusion, HFD-induced obesity may play a protective role in bone formation by concomitantly promoting osteogenic and suppressing adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs through factors secreted by FFA-treated adipocytes.
PMCID: PMC3445940  PMID: 22993583
mesenchymal stem cells; free fatty acids; obesity; osteogenesis; adipogenesis
4.  Antagonists of the Neurokinin-1 or Dopamine D1 Receptors Confer Protection from Methamphetamine on Dopamine Terminals of the Mouse Striatum 
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive compound that induces toxicity of the dopamine (DA) terminals of the neostriatum. Exposure to METH induces long-term deficits in dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels as well as induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the caudate putamen (CPu) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The primary effect of exposure to METH is elevation of the level of extracellular DA; therefore, we assessed the role of the DA D1 receptor (D1R) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) on the expression of toxicity. METH was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg) four times at 2-h intervals (an acute toxic dose), and the mice were sacrificed three days after the treatment. Exposure to METH resulted in marked reduction of DAT sites (reduced to 30 and 21% relative to control in medial and lateral aspects of the CPu) assessed by binding of [125I]RTI-121 by autoradiography or Western blot analysis. Pretreatment with the nonpeptide NK-1R antagonist WIN-51,708 (10 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the first and fourth injections of METH prevented the loss of DAT sites of the CPu. Moreover, pretreatment with WIN-51,708 also prevented the reduction of TH levels induced by METH as well as the induction of GFAP in astrocytes. Pretreatment with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390 (0.25 mg/kg) 30 min before the first and fourth injections of METH conferred partial protection on DAT sites of the CPu. These results demonstrate that receptors postsynaptic to the DA terminals of the CPu are needed in order to express the neurotoxic effects of METH on integral components of the DA terminals of the nigrostriatal projection.
PMCID: PMC2894623  PMID: 15542715
Substance P; neurokinin-1 receptor; dopamine D1 receptor; WIN-51,708; SCH-23390; striatum
5.  The Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum: Terminology for a New Century in Comparative Neuroanatomy 
Many of the assumptions of homology on which the standard nomenclature for the cell groups and fiber tracts of avian brains have been based are in error, and as a result that terminology promotes misunderstanding of the functional organization of avian brains and their evolutionary relationship to mammalian brains. Recognizing this problem, a number of avian brain researchers began an effort to revise the terminology, which culminated in the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum, held at Duke University from July 18 to 20, 2002. In the new terminology approved at this Forum, the flawed conception that the telencephalon of birds consists nearly entirely of a hypertrophied basal ganglia has been purged from the telencephalic terminology, and the actual parts of the basal ganglia and its brainstem afferent cell groups have been given names reflecting their now evident homologies. The telencephalic regions that were erroneously named to reflect presumed homology to mammalian basal ganglia were renamed as parts of the pallium, using prefixes that retained most established abbreviations (to maintain continuity with the replaced nomenclature). Details of this meeting and its major conclusions are presented in this paper, and the details of the new terminology and its basis are presented in a longer companion paper. We urge all to use this new terminology, because we believe it will promote better communication among neuroscientists.
PMCID: PMC2713747  PMID: 19626136
pallium; basal ganglia; telencephalon; brainstem; evolution; terminology; birds; mammals
6.  Revised Nomenclature for Avian Telencephalon and Some Related Brainstem Nuclei 
The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is neurochemically, hodologically, and functionally comparable to the mammalian neocortex, claustrum, and pallial amygdala (all of which derive from the pallial sector of the developing telencephalon). Recognizing that this promotes misunderstanding of the functional organization of avian brains and their evolutionary relationship to mammalian brains, avian brain specialists began discussions to rectify this problem, culminating in the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum held at Duke University in July 2002, which approved a new terminology for avian telencephalon and some allied brainstem cell groups. Details of this new terminology are presented here, as is a rationale for each name change and evidence for any homologies implied by the new names.
Revisions for the brainstem focused on vocal control, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, and basal ganglia-related nuclei. For example, the Forum recognized that the hypoglossal nucleus had been incorrectly identified as the nucleus intermedius in the Karten and Hodos (1967) pigeon brain atlas, and what was identified as the hypoglossal nucleus in that atlas should instead be called the supraspinal nucleus. The locus ceruleus of this and other avian atlases was noted to consist of a caudal noradrenergic part homologous to the mammalian locus coeruleus and a rostral region corresponding to the mammalian A8 dopaminergic cell group. The midbrain dopaminergic cell group in birds known as the nucleus tegmenti pedunculopontinus pars compacta was recognized as homologous to the mammalian substantia nigra pars compacta and was renamed accordingly; a group of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons at the lateral edge of this region was identified as homologous to the mammalian substantia nigra pars reticulata and was also renamed accordingly. A field of cholinergic neurons in the rostral avian hindbrain was named the nucleus pedunculopontinus tegmenti, whereas the anterior nucleus of the ansa lenticularis in the avian diencephalon was renamed the subthalamic nucleus, both for their evident mammalian homologues.
For the basal (i.e., subpallial) telencephalon, the actual parts of the basal ganglia were given names reflecting their now evident homologues. For example, the lobus parolfactorius and paleostriatum augmentatum were acknowledged to make up the dorsal subdivision of the striatal part of the basal ganglia and were renamed as the medial and lateral striatum. The paleostriatum primitivum was recognized as homologous to the mammalian globus pallidus and renamed as such. Additionally, the rostroventral part of what was called the lobus parolfactorius was acknowledged as comparable to the mammalian nucleus accumbens, which, together with the olfactory tubercle, was noted to be part of the ventral striatum in birds. A ventral pallidum, a basal cholinergic cell group, and medial and lateral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis were also recognized.
The dorsal (i.e., pallial) telencephalic regions that had been erroneously named to reflect presumed homology to striatal parts of mammalian basal ganglia were renamed as part of the pallium, using prefixes that retain most established abbreviations, to maintain continuity with the outdated nomenclature. We concluded, however, that one-to-one (i.e., discrete) homologies with mammals are still uncertain for most of the telencephalic pallium in birds and thus the new pallial terminology is largely devoid of assumptions of one-to-one homologies with mammals. The sectors of the hyperstriatum composing the Wulst (i.e., the hyperstriatum accessorium intermedium, and dorsale), the hyperstriatum ventrale, the neostriatum, and the archistriatum have been renamed (respectively) the hyperpallium (hypertrophied pallium), the mesopallium (middle pallium), the nidopallium (nest pallium), and the arcopallium (arched pallium). The posterior part of the archistriatum has been renamed the posterior pallial amygdala, the nucleus taeniae recognized as part of the avian amygdala, and a region inferior to the posterior paleostriatum primitivum included as a subpallial part of the avian amygdala. The names of some of the laminae and fiber tracts were also changed to reflect current understanding of the location of pallial and subpallial sectors of the avian telencephalon. Notably, the lamina medularis dorsalis has been renamed the pallial-subpallial lamina. We urge all to use this new terminology, because we believe it will promote better communication among neuroscientists.
PMCID: PMC2518311  PMID: 15116397
pallium; basal ganglia; telencephalon; brainstem; evolution; terminology; birds; mammals

Results 1-6 (6)