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1.  Evaluation of Osteoconductive Scaffolds in the Canine Femoral Multi-Defect Model 
Tissue Engineering. Part A  2013;19(5-6):634-648.
Treatment of large segmental bone defects remains an unsolved clinical challenge, despite a wide array of existing bone graft materials. This project was designed to rapidly assess and compare promising biodegradable osteoconductive scaffolds for use in the systematic development of new bone regeneration methodologies that combine scaffolds, sources of osteogenic cells, and bioactive scaffold modifications. Promising biomaterials and scaffold fabrication methods were identified in laboratories at Rutgers, MIT, Integra Life Sciences, and Mayo Clinic. Scaffolds were fabricated from various materials, including poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(L-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL), tyrosine-derived polycarbonate (TyrPC), and poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). Highly porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing, laser stereolithography, or solvent casting followed by porogen leaching. The canine femoral multi-defect model was used to systematically compare scaffold performance and enable selection of the most promising substrate(s) on which to add cell sourcing options and bioactive surface modifications. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used to provide a comparative reference to the current clinical standard for osteoconductive scaffolds. Percent bone volume within the defect was assessed 4 weeks after implantation using both MicroCT and limited histomorphometry. Bone formed at the periphery of all scaffolds with varying levels of radial ingrowth. MCA produced a rapid and advanced stage of bone formation and remodeling throughout the defect in 4 weeks, greatly exceeding the performance of all polymer scaffolds. Two scaffold constructs, TyrPCPL/TCP and PPF4SLA/HAPLGA Dip, proved to be significantly better than alternative PLGA and PLCL scaffolds, justifying further development. MCA remains the current standard for osteoconductive scaffolds.
doi:10.1089/ten.tea.2012.0289
PMCID: PMC3568967  PMID: 23215980
2.  In Vivo Transplantation of Autogenous Marrow-Derived Cells Following Rapid Intraoperative Magnetic Separation Based on Hyaluronan to Augment Bone Regeneration 
Tissue Engineering. Part A  2012;19(1-2):125-134.
Introduction
This project was designed to test the hypothesis that rapid intraoperative processing of bone marrow based on hyaluronan (HA) could be used to improve the outcome of local bone regeneration if the concentration and prevalence of marrow-derived connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) could be increased and nonprogenitors depleted before implantation.
Methods
HA was used as a marker for positive selection of marrow-derived CTPs using magnetic separation (MS) to obtain a population of HA-positive cells with an increased CTP prevalence. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used as an osteoconductive carrier scaffold for loading of HA-positive cells. The canine femoral multidefect model was used and four cylindrical defects measuring 10 mm in diameter and 15 mm in length were grafted with MCA combined with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow that was enriched in HA+ CTPs and depleted in red blood cells and nonprogenitors. Outcome was assessed at 4 weeks using quantitative 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of bone formation and histomorphological assessment.
Results
Histomorphological assessment showed a significant increase in new bone formation and in the vascular sinus area in the MS-processed defects. Robust bone formation was found throughout the defect area in both groups (defects grafted with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow.) Percent bone volume in the defects, as assessed by micro-CT, was greater in defects engrafted with MS processed cells, but the difference was not statistically significant.
Conclusion
Rapid intraoperative MS processing to enrich CTPs based on HA as a surface marker can be used to increase the concentration and prevalence of CTPs. MCA grafts supplemented with heparinized bone marrow or MS processed cells resulted in a robust and advanced stage of bone regeneration at 4 weeks. A greater new bone formation and vascular sinus area was found in defects grafted with MS processed cells. These data suggest that MS processing may be used to enhance the performance of marrow-derived CTPs in clinical bone regeneration procedures. Further assessment in a more stringent bone defect model is proposed.
doi:10.1089/ten.tea.2011.0622
PMCID: PMC3593694  PMID: 23082937
3.  Preferential Expression of the Secreted and Membrane forms of Tumor Endothelial Marker 7 transcripts in Osteosarcoma 
Anticancer research  2009;29(11):4317-4322.
Background
High expression of tumor endothelial marker 7 (TEM7) is correlated with osteogenic sarcoma (OS) metastasis and poor survival of patients. The TEM7 gene produces four alternatively spliced transcripts with distinct functional domains; the expression pattern of these transcripts in OS is unknown.
Materials and Methods
mRNA expression was assessed in 5 OS cell lines, 7 normal bone, and 9 OS tumor specimens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
Results
All OS cell lines, 6/9 tumors but none of the bone specimens expressed mRNA of TEM7 secreted forms 1 and 2. A total of 3/5 OS cell lines, 8/9 of tumors and 4/7 of bone specimens expressed mRNA of the TEM7 intracellular form. One out of 5 cell lines, 2/7 tumors and none of the bone specimens expressed mRNA of the TEM7 membrane form. The secreted forms had 20-fold higher expression in metastatic (LM7) compared to non-metatstatic (SAOS-2) cells.
Conclusion
The mRNA of secreted and the membrane forms of TEM7 are preferentially expressed in OS.
PMCID: PMC2800050  PMID: 20032373
TEM7; alternative splicing; osteosarcoma; PCR; metastasis
4.  Osteoblastic and Osteolytic Human Osteosarcomas can be Studied with a new Xenograft Mouse Model Producing Spontaneous Metastases 
Cancer investigation  2009;27(4):435-442.
There is no animal model that reflects the histological and radiographical heterogeneity of osteosarcoma. We assessed seven osteosarcoma cell lines for their potential to develop orthotopic tumors and lung metastasis in SCID mice. Whereas radiologically, 143B developed osteolytic tumors, SaOS-LM7 developed osteoblastic primary tumors. The mineralization status was confirmed by assessing the alkaline phosphatase activity and the microarray expression profile. We herein report a xenograft orthotopic osteosarcoma mouse model to assess osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions, which may contribute in the search for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
doi:10.1080/07357900802491477
PMCID: PMC2723944  PMID: 19212826
Osteosarcoma; Animal Model; Xenograft; Orthotopic; Lung metastasis
5.  C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and Orthopedic Implant Infection 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(2):e9358.
Background
C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) have been shown to be useful for diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection. Little information is available on CRP and ESR in patients undergoing revision or resection of shoulder arthroplasties or spine implants.
Methods/Results
We analyzed preoperative CRP and ESR in 636 subjects who underwent knee (n = 297), hip (n = 221) or shoulder (n = 64) arthroplasty, or spine implant (n = 54) removal. A standardized definition of orthopedic implant-associated infection was applied. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine ideal cutoff values for differentiating infected from non-infected cases. ESR was significantly different in subjects with aseptic failure infection of knee (median 11 and 53.5 mm/h, respectively, p = <0.0001) and hip (median 11 and 30 mm/h, respectively, p = <0.0001) arthroplasties and spine implants (median 10 and 48.5 mm/h, respectively, p = 0.0033), but not shoulder arthroplasties (median 10 and 9 mm/h, respectively, p = 0.9883). Optimized ESR cutoffs for knee, hip and shoulder arthroplasties and spine implants were 19, 13, 26, and 45 mm/h, respectively. Using these cutoffs, sensitivity and specificity to detect infection were 89 and 74% for knee, 82 and 60% for hip, and 32 and 93% for shoulder arthroplasties, and 57 and 90% for spine implants. CRP was significantly different in subjects with aseptic failure and infection of knee (median 4 and 51 mg/l, respectively, p<0.0001), hip (median 3 and 18 mg/l, respectively, p<0.0001), and shoulder (median 3 and 10 mg/l, respectively, p = 0.01) arthroplasties, and spine implants (median 3 and 20 mg/l, respectively, p = 0.0011). Optimized CRP cutoffs for knee, hip, and shoulder arthroplasties, and spine implants were 14.5, 10.3, 7, and 4.6 mg/l, respectively. Using these cutoffs, sensitivity and specificity to detect infection were 79 and 88% for knee, 74 and 79% for hip, and 63 and 73% for shoulder arthroplasties, and 79 and 68% for spine implants.
Conclusion
CRP and ESR have poor sensitivity for the diagnosis of shoulder implant infection. A CRP of 4.6 mg/l had a sensitivity of 79 and a specificity of 68% to detect infection of spine implants.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009358
PMCID: PMC2825262  PMID: 20179760
6.  High expression of Tumor Endothelial Marker 7 is associated with metastasis and poor survival of patients with osteogenic sarcoma 
Gene  2007;399(2):137-143.
Our objective is to identify genes regulating metastasis of osteogenic sarcoma (OGS) since metastasis is the primary cause of mortality among patients with OGS. To identify such genes, we first created a database of differentially expressed genes between six low-grade and six high-grade OGS tumors, and between a normal immortalized osteoblast cell line (FOB) and four commercially available OGS-derived cell lines. We specifically searched for surface-proteins over-expressed in high-grade OGS, since we hypothesize that tumor-cell specific surface markers are key to metastasis. A gene encoding Tumor Endothelial Marker7 (TEM7) was selected as a candidate for further study. TEM7 expression pattern was assessed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining. TEM7 mRNA was abundantly expressed in SAOS cells (derived from high-grade OGS), but not in FOB or MG63 cells (derived from low-grade OGS). Virtually no expression of TEM7 protein was observed in FOB cells but abundant expression was noted in SAOS and TE85 cells. Employing immunostaining of 92 human OGS specimens (50 high grade and 42 low-grade) collected before chemotherapy show 97% (37 of 38) of high-grade OGS specimens with metastasis have high TEM7 staining. Further, we found that elevated expression of TEM7 correlated with poor survival (p<0.04) of affected patients. Inhibiting TEM7 function by siRNA inhibited invasion and migration of OGS cells with metastatic potential. Our results suggest TEM7 expression level closely parallels histology-based prognostication of OGS metastasis and, therefore, it is a therapeutic target. This is the first demonstration of a link between TEM7 and cancer metastasis.
doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.05.003
PMCID: PMC2066185  PMID: 17560052
TEM7; Osteogenic sarcoma; Metastasis; siRNA; Tumor marker

Results 1-6 (6)