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1.  2-Methoxyestradiol-induced Cell Death in Osteosarcoma Cells is Preceded by Cell Cycle Arrest 
2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a naturally occurring mammalian metabolite of 17β-Estradiol (E2), induces cell death in osteosarcoma cells. To further understand the molecular mechanisms of action, we have investigated cell cycle progression in 2-ME-treated human osteosarcoma (MG63, SaOS-2 and LM8) cells. At 5 μM, 2-ME induced growth arrest by inducing a block in cell cycle; 2-ME-treatment resulted in 2-fold increases in G1 phase cells and a decrease in S phase cells in MG63 and SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cell lines, compared to the appropriate vehicle controls. 2-ME-treatment induced a 3-fold increase in the G2 phase in LM8 osteosarcoma cells. The results demonstrated steroid specificity, as the tumorigenic metabolite, 16α-hydroxyestradiol (16-OHE), did not have any effect on cell cycle progression in osteosarcoma cells. The cell cycle arrest coincided with an increase in expression of the cell cycle markers p21, p27 and p53 proteins in 2-ME-treated osteosarcoma cells. Also, MG63 cells, transiently transfected with cDNA for a ‘loss of function mutant” RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) protein, were resistant to 2-ME-induced cell cycle arrest. These results suggest that 2-ME works in concert with factors regulating cell cycle progression, and cell cycle arrest precedes cell death in 2-ME-treated osteosarcoma cells.
doi:10.1002/jcb.21758
PMCID: PMC2821714  PMID: 18384113
estrogen metabolite; MG63 cells; cell cycle arrest; PKR

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