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1.  Why children's rights are central to international child health 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2007;92(2):176-180.
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a framework for improving children's lives around the world. It covers both individual child health practice and public health and provides a unique and child‐centred approach to paediatric problems. The Convention applies to most child health problems and the articles are grouped into protection, provision and participation. Examples of the first are the right to protection from abuse, from economic exploitation and from illicit drugs. We examine one particular problem in each of these categories, specifically child labour, services for children with a disability and violence against children. The role of the paedialrician in applying a children's rights approach is discussed. Children's rights are increasingly being accepted around the world but still there is much more rhetoric paid to their value than genuine enforcement. Paediatricians can make a difference to the status of children worldwide by adopting a rights‐based approach.
doi:10.1136/adc.2006.098228
PMCID: PMC2083315  PMID: 17264288
2.  Relationships between paediatricians and infant formula milk companies 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2006;91(5):383-385.
Paediatricians should recognise the influence of infant formula milk companies and avoid intentionally or inadvertently promoting them
doi:10.1136/adc.2005.072892
PMCID: PMC2082719  PMID: 16632663
breast feeding; conflict of interest; infant formula; nutrition
3.  True status of supplement not made clear to reader 
doi:10.1136/adc.2005.078782
PMCID: PMC1720138
4.  Children's rights 
doi:10.1136/adc.2004.064899
PMCID: PMC1720271
5.  A general paediatrician's practice in children's rights 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2005;90(2):178-181.
doi:10.1136/adc.2004.064014
PMCID: PMC1720252  PMID: 15665177
6.  Social capital: a key factor in child health inequalities 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2004;89(5):456-459.
doi:10.1136/adc.2002.024422
PMCID: PMC1719915  PMID: 15102639
7.  Paediatrics in primary care 
doi:10.1136/adc.2003.046235
PMCID: PMC1719779  PMID: 14736618
8.  Community paediatrics and change 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2002;86(4):227-229.
doi:10.1136/adc.86.4.227
PMCID: PMC1719153  PMID: 11919089
9.  Poverty and child health 
doi:10.1136/adc.85.4.349
PMCID: PMC1718949
10.  Advocating for children's health: a US and UK perspective 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2001;85(3):180-182.
doi:10.1136/adc.85.3.180
PMCID: PMC1718917  PMID: 11517094
11.  Work, family socioeconomic status, and growth among working boys in Jordan 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2001;84(4):311-314.
AIMS—To describe the work, family socioeconomic characteristics, and growth of a representative sample of working children in Jordan.
METHODS—In a cross sectional survey of growth and health, 135 working children (aged 10-16 years) were studied in the areas of Irbid, Jarash, and North Jordan Valley. The children and their parents were interviewed and data collected on length of working week, income earned by the child, duration of work in years, age of starting work, type of work, child's smoking status, and family socioeconomic status.
RESULTS—The mean age of the children was 13.3 years; 14.8% had started work before the age of 10 and 12.6% had been working for more than four years. Mean income was 34 Jordanian Dinars but 6.7% were unwaged; 34% were working more than 60 hours per week, and 85.9% more than 40 hours. Monthly income and working hours were positively correlated with the age of the child. There was no correlation between age and smoking status; 37.8% smoked more than five cigarettes per day. Mean height and weight z scores were −0.365 and −0.081 of the UK standard respectively. Packed cell volume was within the anaemic range in 34.1% of children.
CONCLUSIONS—In Jordan many children start work at an early age and work long hours for little or no income. Stunting and anaemia are common and many are established smokers. Relevance of these findings for social policy and health care of working children in Jordan and elsewhere is discussed.


doi:10.1136/adc.84.4.311
PMCID: PMC1718738  PMID: 11259229
12.  Tertiary paediatrics needs a disability model 
doi:10.1136/adc.83.1.35
PMCID: PMC1718402  PMID: 10868997
13.  Exploring the scope for advocacy by paediatricians 
doi:10.1136/adc.82.5.428e
PMCID: PMC1718303  PMID: 10836938
15.  Exploring the scope for advocacy by paediatricians 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1999;81(6):515-518.
AIMS—To ascertain the type and extent of problems requiring advocacy in paediatrics. To develop an approach for analysing problems according to their root causes and the level of society at which advocacy is needed.
METHODS—Nine paediatricians kept detailed clinical diaries for two weeks to identify problems. Classifications were developed to categorise problems by cause and the level of society at which they needed to be addressed. The press was surveyed for one week for childhood issues attracting media attention.
RESULTS—60 problems requiring advocacy were identified. Root causes included failures within agencies, between agencies, and inadequate provision. In addition to advocacy required individually, "political" action was needed at the community level (16 issues), city level (16 issues), and nationally (15 issues). 103 articles were found in the press, these did not relate closely to issues identified by clinicians.
CONCLUSIONS—Many opportunities for advocacy arise in the course of daily work. A systematic way of analysing them has been developed for use in planning action. To optimise the health and health care of children, there is a need to train and support paediatricians in advocacy work for local as well as national issues. Ten issues were identified that might be prioritised by paediatricians working on an agenda for action.


PMCID: PMC1718159  PMID: 10569972
16.  Young Carers and their Families. 
PMCID: PMC1717925  PMID: 10208964
17.  Randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a booklet on the duration of breast feeding 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1997;76(6):500-504.
Accepted 14 February 1997

OBJECTIVE—To test the efficacy of an information booklet to increase the duration of breast feeding.
RESEARCH DESIGN—Randomised design, stratifying by maternal residence and working activity. Two hundred women were recruited, 103 received the booklet and verbal counselling and 97 verbal counselling only.
POPULATION—Infants observed from 15 September 1993 to 15 June 1994 in the well baby outpatient clinic of the Paediatric Institute of the Catholic University of Rome, Italy.
MAIN RESULTS—No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in the prevalence of exclusive or complementary breast feeding at 6 months of age: 48.5% and 59.2% in the intervention group, 43.7% and 51.5% in the control group. The median duration of exclusive or complementary breast feeding was 24 and 27 weeks in the treated group, 22 and 25 in the control group.
CONCLUSIONS—The information booklet alone does not seem to increase the duration and the prevalence of breast feeding at 6 months of age. The use of written material with a more individualised support and more extensive use of randomised clinical trials in the evaluation of health promoting programmes is recommended. 


PMCID: PMC1717207  PMID: 9245846
20.  Fragile X syndrome. 
PMCID: PMC1511598  PMID: 8660061
21.  Comparison of the use of Tanner and Whitehouse, NCHS, and Cambridge standards in infancy. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1993;69(4):420-422.
The British (Tanner and Whitehouse) and American (National Center for Health Statistics, NCHS) growth standards are widely used internationally, although the data are now over 30 years old. Routine weight data was retrieved from the child health records of a complete annual cohort of 3418 children aged 18-30 months to test the validity of these standards for modern infants. Compared with the Tanner and Whitehouse standards, Newcastle children rose initially and then fell a mean of 0.7 SDs between 6 weeks and 18 months, resulting in a threefold difference in the proportion of children below the 3rd centile at different ages. NCHS standards showed a similar pattern. When compared with modern standards from the Cambridge growth study, there was a much closer match, although Newcastle children showed a slight gain by the age of 1 year. Existing standards for weight introduce inaccuracy into the estimation of centile position in the early months of life. As both standards show similar problems this probably represents a real secular change due to changes in infant nutrition. These findings support the need to develop new national growth reference standards.
PMCID: PMC1029547  PMID: 8259870

Results 1-25 (44)