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1.  Why children's rights are central to international child health 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2007;92(2):176-180.
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a framework for improving children's lives around the world. It covers both individual child health practice and public health and provides a unique and child‐centred approach to paediatric problems. The Convention applies to most child health problems and the articles are grouped into protection, provision and participation. Examples of the first are the right to protection from abuse, from economic exploitation and from illicit drugs. We examine one particular problem in each of these categories, specifically child labour, services for children with a disability and violence against children. The role of the paedialrician in applying a children's rights approach is discussed. Children's rights are increasingly being accepted around the world but still there is much more rhetoric paid to their value than genuine enforcement. Paediatricians can make a difference to the status of children worldwide by adopting a rights‐based approach.
doi:10.1136/adc.2006.098228
PMCID: PMC2083315  PMID: 17264288
2.  Children's rights 
doi:10.1136/adc.2004.064899
PMCID: PMC1720271
3.  A general paediatrician's practice in children's rights 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2005;90(2):178-181.
doi:10.1136/adc.2004.064014
PMCID: PMC1720252  PMID: 15665177
4.  Social capital: a key factor in child health inequalities 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2004;89(5):456-459.
doi:10.1136/adc.2002.024422
PMCID: PMC1719915  PMID: 15102639
5.  Paediatrics in primary care 
doi:10.1136/adc.2003.046235
PMCID: PMC1719779  PMID: 14736618
6.  Community paediatrics and change 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2002;86(4):227-229.
doi:10.1136/adc.86.4.227
PMCID: PMC1719153  PMID: 11919089
7.  Exploring the scope for advocacy by paediatricians 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1999;81(6):515-518.
AIMS—To ascertain the type and extent of problems requiring advocacy in paediatrics. To develop an approach for analysing problems according to their root causes and the level of society at which advocacy is needed.
METHODS—Nine paediatricians kept detailed clinical diaries for two weeks to identify problems. Classifications were developed to categorise problems by cause and the level of society at which they needed to be addressed. The press was surveyed for one week for childhood issues attracting media attention.
RESULTS—60 problems requiring advocacy were identified. Root causes included failures within agencies, between agencies, and inadequate provision. In addition to advocacy required individually, "political" action was needed at the community level (16 issues), city level (16 issues), and nationally (15 issues). 103 articles were found in the press, these did not relate closely to issues identified by clinicians.
CONCLUSIONS—Many opportunities for advocacy arise in the course of daily work. A systematic way of analysing them has been developed for use in planning action. To optimise the health and health care of children, there is a need to train and support paediatricians in advocacy work for local as well as national issues. Ten issues were identified that might be prioritised by paediatricians working on an agenda for action.


PMCID: PMC1718159  PMID: 10569972
8.  Fragile X syndrome. 
PMCID: PMC1511598  PMID: 8660061
9.  Sending parents outpatient letters about their children: parents' and general practitioners' views. 
Quality in Health Care  1994;3(3):142-146.
Parents' cooperation is essential to ensuring implementation of effective healthcare management of children, and complete openness should exist between paediatricians and parents. One method of achieving this is to send parents a copy of the outpatient letter to the general practitioner (GP) after the child's outpatient consultation. To determine the views of parents and GPs a pilot survey was conducted in two general children's outpatient clinics in hospitals in Newcastle upon Tyne. In March and April 1991 a postal questionnaire was sent to 57 parents of children attending the clinics, and a similar questionnaire to their GPs to elicit, respectively, parents' understanding of the letter and perception of its helpfulness, and GPs' views on the value of sending the letters to parents. Completed questionnaires were received from 34(60%) parents and 47(82%) GPs; 26(45%) respondents were matched pairs. 27(79%) parents said they understood all of the letter, 19(56%) that it helped their understanding, 32(94%) felt it was a good idea, and 31(91%) made positive comments. In all, 29(61%) GPs favoured the idea and six (13%) did not. Eleven (23%) said they would be concerned if this became routine practice, and 20(74%) of the 27 providing comments were doubtful or negative; several considered that they should communicate information to parents. The views in the matched pairs were dissimilar: parents were universally in favour whereas many GPs had reservations. The authors concluded that sending the letters improved parents' satisfaction with communication, and they recommend that paediatricians consider adopting this practice.
PMCID: PMC1055217  PMID: 10139411
10.  Could hospitals do more to encourage breast feeding? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1993;307(6917):1437-1438.
PMCID: PMC1679488  PMID: 8281081
11.  Health professionals and South Africa: supporting change in the health sector. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1993;307(6896):110-112.
Now that political change is on the way in South Africa, what should be the position of doctors who are invited to visit the country? Does the "academic boycott" still have relevance? Waterston and Zwi review the case for and against an academic boycott policy, using evidence collected during the recent visit by Physicians for Human Rights (UK) and the Johannes Wier Foundation. The health system in South Africa is still inequitable, and despite progress towards desegregation in hospitals there is little momentum towards universal provision of primary health care, especially in the rapidly growing townships around big cities. The authors consider that pressure on the government should be maintained by outside organisations but that support directed towards appropriate health care should be encouraged, particularly in public health and primary health care.
PMCID: PMC1693501  PMID: 8343707
12.  Management of childhood diarrhoea by pharmacists and parents: is Britain lagging behind the Third World? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;302(6774):440-443.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the role of community pharmacists in providing advice and treatment for children with diarrhoea; to investigate mothers' responses to diarrhoea in their children. DESIGN--Cross sectional questionnaire study of a random selection of community pharmacists and of mothers attending child health clinics. Pharmacists were interviewed and given a questionnaire and a separate group was visited by a researcher posing as a parent; mothers were interviewed at the clinic. SETTING--Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS--20 pharmacists were interviewed and visits by a researcher posing as a parent were carried out to 10 different pharmacists; 58 mothers were interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Advice given by pharmacists was contrasted with standard advice on management of diarrhoea in children. RESULTS--Half of the pharmacists interviewed and 70% of pharmacists visited by a researcher posing as a parent recommended inappropriate treatment of childhood diarrhoea (such as antidiarrhoeal drugs and withholding breast milk), and only 30% at interview stated that they would ask for the age of the child. Mothers' knowledge of home treatment was inadequate. All pharmacists in the posed visits recommended a purchased treatment. CONCLUSION--Pharmacists are widely used by parents for consultation for children's ailments but their advice is not always appropriate; hence they should be given more consistent training in recognising and managing clinical problems. Medical advice on management of diarrhoea is also inconsistent and should be modified to conform to the guidelines of the World Health Organisation.
PMCID: PMC1669340  PMID: 2004171
13.  Kwashiorkor. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;301(6763):1276.
PMCID: PMC1664404  PMID: 2136181
14.  Screening children from overseas for infections: is it justified? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;301(6755):800-802.
OBJECTIVES--To investigate current practice of screening children from abroad for infections after coming to the United Kingdom, and to make recommendations for future practice. DESIGN--A review of literature and a questionnaire sent to all health authorities and boards in the United Kingdom. SETTING--All health authorities and boards in the United Kingdom. SUBJECTS--167 Health authorities or boards that completed questionnaires (response rate 80%), 59 of which used a screening programme. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Response to questionnaire on policies for screening children for infections on their return from overseas. RESULTS--12 Of the 59 authorities screened all children and one screened only those from the West Indian subcontinent. 13 Authorities excluded children from school while awaiting results; 58 screened for tuberculosis and four for diphtheria. CONCLUSIONS--There is a wide variation in screening policies around the country with no national consensus. Screening for diphtheria, typhoid, and salmonellosis is hard to justify and is probably not effective. Screening for tuberculosis, however, is supported by many authorities, is widely practised, and probably is effective. There is a strong case for rationalisation of screening.
PMCID: PMC1663906  PMID: 2224270
15.  Anaemia and child health surveillance. 
PMCID: PMC1778377  PMID: 3606194
17.  A service for problem families. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1986;61(3):311-312.
PMCID: PMC1777717  PMID: 3963879
18.  An objective undergraduate clinical examination in child health. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1980;55(12):917-922.
A new type of test used to examine medical students' clinical skills in paediatrics is described. Each student has to circulate round a number of timed stations. At each one he performs a specified clinical procedure--such as history taking, physical examination, urine analysis, and radiological interpretation--and is marked according to his performance. This type of test is objective and can be extended to cover different aspects of clinical methods; it readily informs the student about his progress, and enables the teacher to look critically at his own technique.
PMCID: PMC1627187  PMID: 7458391
19.  Doctors and children's teeth. 
British Medical Journal  1979;1(6176):1487.
PMCID: PMC1599047  PMID: 466073
20.  Priorities in road accidents. 
British Medical Journal  1979;1(6162):548.
PMCID: PMC1598057  PMID: 444880

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