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1.  Advocating for children's health: a US and UK perspective 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2001;85(3):180-182.
doi:10.1136/adc.85.3.180
PMCID: PMC1718917  PMID: 11517094
2.  Work, family socioeconomic status, and growth among working boys in Jordan 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2001;84(4):311-314.
AIMS—To describe the work, family socioeconomic characteristics, and growth of a representative sample of working children in Jordan.
METHODS—In a cross sectional survey of growth and health, 135 working children (aged 10-16 years) were studied in the areas of Irbid, Jarash, and North Jordan Valley. The children and their parents were interviewed and data collected on length of working week, income earned by the child, duration of work in years, age of starting work, type of work, child's smoking status, and family socioeconomic status.
RESULTS—The mean age of the children was 13.3 years; 14.8% had started work before the age of 10 and 12.6% had been working for more than four years. Mean income was 34 Jordanian Dinars but 6.7% were unwaged; 34% were working more than 60 hours per week, and 85.9% more than 40 hours. Monthly income and working hours were positively correlated with the age of the child. There was no correlation between age and smoking status; 37.8% smoked more than five cigarettes per day. Mean height and weight z scores were −0.365 and −0.081 of the UK standard respectively. Packed cell volume was within the anaemic range in 34.1% of children.
CONCLUSIONS—In Jordan many children start work at an early age and work long hours for little or no income. Stunting and anaemia are common and many are established smokers. Relevance of these findings for social policy and health care of working children in Jordan and elsewhere is discussed.


doi:10.1136/adc.84.4.311
PMCID: PMC1718738  PMID: 11259229
3.  Tertiary paediatrics needs a disability model 
doi:10.1136/adc.83.1.35
PMCID: PMC1718402  PMID: 10868997
4.  Exploring the scope for advocacy by paediatricians 
doi:10.1136/adc.82.5.428e
PMCID: PMC1718303  PMID: 10836938
6.  Young Carers and their Families. 
PMCID: PMC1717925  PMID: 10208964
7.  Randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a booklet on the duration of breast feeding 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1997;76(6):500-504.
Accepted 14 February 1997

OBJECTIVE—To test the efficacy of an information booklet to increase the duration of breast feeding.
RESEARCH DESIGN—Randomised design, stratifying by maternal residence and working activity. Two hundred women were recruited, 103 received the booklet and verbal counselling and 97 verbal counselling only.
POPULATION—Infants observed from 15 September 1993 to 15 June 1994 in the well baby outpatient clinic of the Paediatric Institute of the Catholic University of Rome, Italy.
MAIN RESULTS—No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in the prevalence of exclusive or complementary breast feeding at 6 months of age: 48.5% and 59.2% in the intervention group, 43.7% and 51.5% in the control group. The median duration of exclusive or complementary breast feeding was 24 and 27 weeks in the treated group, 22 and 25 in the control group.
CONCLUSIONS—The information booklet alone does not seem to increase the duration and the prevalence of breast feeding at 6 months of age. The use of written material with a more individualised support and more extensive use of randomised clinical trials in the evaluation of health promoting programmes is recommended. 


PMCID: PMC1717207  PMID: 9245846

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