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1.  RRR-γ-tocopherol induces human breast cancer cells to undergo apoptosis via death receptor 5 (DR5)-mediated apoptotic signaling 
Cancer letters  2007;259(2):165-176.
Goal of this study was to investigate the pro-apoptotic properties of RRR-γ-tocopherol (γT) in human breast cancer cells. γT was shown to induce cancer cells but not normal cells to undergo apoptosis, sensitize cancer cells to Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis, and increase death receptor 5 (DR5) mRNA, protein, and cell surface expression. Knockdown of DR5 attenuated γT-induced apoptosis. Investigations of post-receptor signaling showed: caspase-8, Bid, and Bax activation, increases in mitochondria permeability, cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Thus, γT is a potent pro-apoptotic agent for human breast cancer cells inducing apoptosis via activation of DR5-mediated apoptotic pathway.
doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2007.10.008
PMCID: PMC2263000  PMID: 18022315
human breast cancer cells; RRR-γ-tocopherol; DR5; apoptosis; TRAIL; vitamin E
2.  Combining multiple family-based association studies 
BMC Proceedings  2007;1(Suppl 1):S162.
While high-throughput genotyping technologies are becoming readily available, the merit of using these technologies to perform genome-wide association studies has not been established. One major concern is that for studies of complex diseases and traits, the whole-genome approach requires such large sample sizes that both recruitment and genotyping pose considerable challenge. Here we propose a novel statistical method that boosts the effective sample size by combining data obtained from several studies. Specifically, we consider a situation in which various studies have genotyped non-overlapping subjects at largely non-overlapping sets of markers. Our approach, which exploits the local linkage disequilibrium structure without assuming an explicit population model, opens up the possibility of improving statistical power by incorporating existing data into future association studies.
PMCID: PMC2367479  PMID: 18466508
3.  Controlling for false positive findings of trans-hubs in expression quantitative trait loci mapping 
BMC Proceedings  2007;1(Suppl 1):S157.
In the fast-developing field of expression quantitative traits loci (eQTL) studies, much interest has been concentrated on detecting genomic regions containing transcriptional regulators that influence multiple expression phenotypes (trans-hubs). In this paper, we develop statistical methods for eQTL mapping and propose a new procedure for investigating candidate trans-hubs. We use data from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 to illustrate our methods. After correlations among expressions were accounted for, the previously detected trans-hubs are no longer significant. Our results suggest that conclusions regarding regulation hot spots should be treated with great caution.
PMCID: PMC2367467  PMID: 18466502
4.  Promoting Effects of Milk on the Development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced Mammary Tumors in Rats 
To assess the effect of milk on the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors, 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with DMBA were divided into 3 groups and given 1 of 3 test solutions for 20 weeks as their drinking liquid: milk, estrone sulfate solution or tap water. The milk group showed a significantly great incidence (75%) in tumor development compared with the water group (38%) and was comparable to the estrone sulfate group (69%). Mean tumor number per rat in the milk group was significantly higher than that in the water group (p=0.009). We classified the mammary tumors into three histological types: intraductal papilloma, fibroadenoma, and adenocarcinoma. Although the percent of intraductal papilloma and fibroadenoma was almost same among the three groups, malignant tumor was found only in the milk and estrone sulfate groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that milk as well as estrone sulfate promotes the development of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rat and could be associated with the occurrence of adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.1267/ahc.07008
PMCID: PMC1874511  PMID: 17576434
mammary tumor; milk; smooth muscle actin; proliferating cell nuclear antigen; estrogen receptor

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