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1.  Anti-cancer effect of ursolic acid activates apoptosis through ROCK/PTEN mediated mitochondrial translocation of cofilin-1 in prostate cancer 
Oncology Letters  2016;12(4):2880-2885.
Ursolic acid is a type of pentacyclic triterpene compound with multiple pharmacological activities including cancer resistance, protection from liver injury, antisepsis, anti-inflammation and antiviral activity. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of ursolic acid. Ursolic acid activates cell apoptosis and its pro-apoptotic mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Cell Counting kit-8 assays, flow cytometric analysis and analysis of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity were used to estimate the anticancer effect of ursolic acid on DU145 prostate cancer cells. The protein expression of cytochrome c, rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and cofilin-1 were examined using western blot analysis. In the present study, ursolic acid significantly suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis, as well as increasing caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities of DU145 cells. Furthermore, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial cytochrome c protein expression was significantly activated and suppressed, respectively, by ursolic acid. Ursolic acid significantly suppressed the ROCK/PTEN signaling pathway and inhibited cofilin-1 protein expression in DU145 cells. The results of the present study indicate that the anticancer effect of ursolic acid activates cell apoptosis through ROCK/PTEN mediated mitochondrial translocation of cofilin-1 in prostate cancer.
doi:10.3892/ol.2016.5015
PMCID: PMC5038386  PMID: 27698874
ursolic acid; prostate cancer; cytochrome c; rho-associated protein kinase/phosphatase and tensin homolog; cofilin-1
2.  Clinical treatment of gastrinoma: A case report and review of the literature 
Oncology Letters  2016;11(5):3433-3437.
Gastrinoma is a gastrin-secreting tumor that is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The majority of cases occur in the pancreas, followed by the duodenum. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the relative rarity of the tumor and the lack of specific symptoms. In the current study, a 68-year-old female patient presented at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China) due to intermittent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. The patient was treated by surgical resection and was pathologically diagnosed with a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (gastrinoma; grade 1). No evidence of recurrence was observed during 1 year of follow-up. Furthermore, a review of the Chinese literature was performed, which analyzed an additional 17 published cases of gastrinoma. The tumor size ranged between 0.5×0.5 cm and 7.5×6.3×5.1 cm. The pancreas was the most common site of occurrence, accounting for 72% (13/18) of cases, followed by the duodenum (28%; 5/18). The most common initial symptom was abdominal pain (89%; 16/18), followed by diarrhea (56%; 10/18). In 18 cases, including the present case and 17 previous cases, the level of gastrin ranged between 137 and 1,550 pg/ml (normal range, 5–100 pg/ml). Of the 17 previous cases, 11 patients underwent surgery and 6 patients received conservative therapy due to metastasis or patient choice. Overall, gastrinoma remains a rare disease. Complete removal of the lesion is the standard curative treatment and conservative treatment is only recommended for patients unsuitable for surgery or for those with widespread metastasis.
doi:10.3892/ol.2016.4397
PMCID: PMC4840999  PMID: 27123130
gastrinoma; Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; neuroendocrine tumor; annular pancreas
3.  Small-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of the MAPK p42 gene induces dual effects in HeLa cells 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(4):649-655.
The genesis and progression of cervical cancer involve the mutation or deviant expression of numerous genes, including the activation of oncogenes (Ha-ras, C-myc, C-erbB2 and Bcl-2) and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes (p53 and Rb). Previous studies showed that small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the MAPK p42 gene partly inhibit proliferation and increase apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Results of a microarray analysis showed that MAPK p42 siRNA inhibited cell growth through the regulation of cell cycle control and apoptosis and induced interferon-like response in HeLa cells. In order to confirm the dual effects of MAPK p42 siRNA, we compared the roles of siRNA and U0126, an inhibitor of MAPK p42, in HeLa cells. Short 21-mer double-stranded/siRNAs were synthesized to target MAPK p42 mRNA in HeLa cells. The siRNAs were transfected into HeLa cells using Lipofectamine. The cells were treated with siRNA or U0126 at different concentrations for a period of 48 h. The biological effect of siRNA and U0126 on HeLa cells was measured by MTT and flow cytometry. MAPK1, NUP188, P38, STAT1, STAT2, PML and OAS1 were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. HeLa cell growth was inhibited by siRNA or U0126, and the effect of siRNA inhibition was greater than that of U0126. Cell cycle phases were different for siRNA or U0126, but HeLa cell growth was arrested at the S phase by siRNA and at G1 phase by U0126. A down-regulation in MAPK p42 expression by siRNA and up-regulation by U0126 were noted. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that P38 was up-regulated and NUP188 was down-regulated by siRNA in comparison with the control groups, and the results were consistent with those of U0126. Expression levels of STAT1, STAT2, PML and OAS1 induced by siRNA differed from those induced by U0126. siRNA-mediated silencing and deactivation induced by U0126 in MAPK p42 led to growth inhibition in the HeLa cells. The effects of siRNA on HeLa cell growth were different from those of U0126. Dual effects of MAPK p42 siRNA-2 on HeLa cell growth were noted: one consisted of a specific effect induced by siRNA-mediated p42 MAPK silencing and the other exhibited a non-specific interferon-like response.
doi:10.3892/ol_00000114
PMCID: PMC3436355  PMID: 22966358
interferon-like response; targeting response; MAPK p42; RNA interference

Results 1-3 (3)