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1.  Comparison of the killing effects between nitrogen-doped and pure TiO2 on HeLa cells with visible light irradiation 
The killing effect of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells by visible light photodynamic therapy (PDT) was higher than that of TiO2 nanoparticles. To study the mechanism of the killing effect, the reactive oxygen species produced by the visible-light-activated N-TiO2 and pure-TiO2 were evaluated and compared. The changes of the cellular parameters, such as the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular Ca2+, and nitrogen monoxide (NO) concentrations after PDT were measured and compared for N-TiO2- and TiO2-treated HeLa cells. The N-TiO2 resulted in more loss of MMP and higher increase of Ca2+ and NO in HeLa cells than pure TiO2. The cell morphology changes with time were also examined by a confocal microscope. The cells incubated with N-TiO2 exhibited serious distortion and membrane breakage at 60 min after the PDT.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-96
PMCID: PMC3599500  PMID: 23433090
Nitrogen-doped TiO2; Visible-light-activated; Photodynamic therapy; Reactive oxygen species
2.  Study on the visible-light-induced photokilling effect of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on cancer cells 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2011;6(1):356.
Nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by calcining the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles under ammonia atmosphere. The N-TiO2 showed higher absorbance in the visible region than the pure TiO2. The cytotoxicity and visible-light-induced phototoxicity of the pure- and N-TiO2 were examined for three types of cancer cell lines. No significant cytotoxicity was detected. However, the visible-light-induced photokilling effects on cells were observed. The survival fraction of the cells decreased with the increased incubation concentration of the nanoparticles. The cancer cells incubated with N-TiO2 were killed more effectively than that with the pure TiO2. The reactive oxygen species was found to play an important role on the photokilling effect for cells. Furthermore, the intracellular distributions of N-TiO2 nanoparticles were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The co-localization of N-TiO2 nanoparticles with nuclei or Golgi complexes was observed. The aberrant nuclear morphologies such as micronuclei were detected after the N-TiO2-treated cells were irradiated by the visible light.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-356
PMCID: PMC3211446  PMID: 21711880
3.  Subcellular Localization of Thiol-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Living Cells 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2009;4(7):606-612.
Internalization and dynamic subcellular distribution of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in living cells were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. These unfunctionalized QDs were well internalized into human hepatocellular carcinoma and rat basophilic leukemia cells in vitro. Co-localizations of QDs with lysosomes and Golgi complexes were observed, indicating that in addition to the well-known endosome-lysosome endocytosis pathway, the Golgi complex is also a main destination of the endocytosed QDs. The movement of the endocytosed QDs toward the Golgi complex in the perinuclear region of the cell was demonstrated.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9307-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9307-9
PMCID: PMC2893999  PMID: 20596411
Cells; Confocal microscopy; Imaging; Quantum dots; Subcellular localization
4.  Subcellular Localization of Thiol-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Living Cells 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2009;4(7):606-612.
Internalization and dynamic subcellular distribution of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in living cells were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. These unfunctionalized QDs were well internalized into human hepatocellular carcinoma and rat basophilic leukemia cells in vitro. Co-localizations of QDs with lysosomes and Golgi complexes were observed, indicating that in addition to the well-known endosome-lysosome endocytosis pathway, the Golgi complex is also a main destination of the endocytosed QDs. The movement of the endocytosed QDs toward the Golgi complex in the perinuclear region of the cell was demonstrated.
doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9307-9
PMCID: PMC2893999  PMID: 20596411
Cells; Confocal microscopy; Imaging; Quantum dots; Subcellular localization

Results 1-4 (4)