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1.  Chromosome-Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi 
A salmonella genomic island, designated SGI11, was found in 18 of 26 multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh. SGI11 was an IS1 composite transposon and carried 7 resistance genes that conferred resistance to 5 first-line antimicrobials. Eleven of the 18 SGI11-carrying S. Typhi isolates had developed resistance to high levels of ciprofloxacin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.04081-14
PMCID: PMC4291426  PMID: 25367917
2.  Protein phosphatase PP6 is required for homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks 
Cell Cycle  2011;10(9):1411-1419.
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most lethal lesions associated with genome stability, which, when destabilized, predisposes organs to cancers. DSBs are primarily fixed either with little fidelity by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair or with high fidelity by homology-directed repair (HDR). The phosphorylated form of H2AX on serine 139 (γ-H2AX) is a marker of DSBs. In this study, we explored if the protein phosphatase PP6 is involved in DSB repair by depletion of its expression in human cancer cell lines, and determined PP6 expression in human breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry staining. We found that bacterially produced PP6c (the catalytic subunit of PP6)-containing heterotrimeric combinations exhibit phosphatase activity against γ-H2AX in the in vitro phosphatase assays. Depletion of PP6c or PP6R2 led to persistent high levels of γ-H2AX after DNA damage and a defective HDR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that PP6c was recruited to the region adjacent to the DSB sites. Expression of PP6c, PP6R2 and PP6R3 in human breast tumors was significantly lower than those in benign breast diseases. Taken together, our results suggest that γ-H2AX is a physiological substrate of PP6 and PP6 is required for HDR and its expression may harbor a protective role during the development of breast cancer.
doi:10.4161/cc.10.9.15479
PMCID: PMC3117043  PMID: 21451261
protein phosphatase; PP6; γ-H2AX; DNA double-strand break; homology-directed repair
3.  The mutation induced by space conditions in Escherichia coli 
doi:10.3748/wjg.v5.i5.445
PMCID: PMC4688619  PMID: 11819487
Escherichia coli; mutation; space conditions; microorganism breeding

Results 1-3 (3)