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1.  Associations Between Temperament at Age 1.5 Years and Obesogenic Diet at Ages 3 and 7 Years 
Objective
To investigate whether temperament in 1.5-year-olds predicts their consumption of potentially obesogenic foods and drinks at ages 3 and 7 years.
Methods
Participants were 6 997 mothers and infants from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Questionnaires were collected during pregnancy, at birth, and at child ages 6 months and 1.5, 3, and 7 years. Predictor variables: children’s temperament at age 1.5 (internalizing, externalizing, surgent) and mothers’ negative affectivity. Outcome variables: children’s consumption of sweet foods, sweet drinks, and fruits/vegetables at ages 3 and 7 (dichotomized at the 85th percentile).
Results
Controlling for covariates, internalizing 1.5-year-olds (anxious, dependent) were 77% and 63% more likely to consume sweet drinks daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively; they were 55% and 43% more likely to consume sweet foods daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively. Externalizing 1.5-year-olds (hyperactive, aggressive) were 34% more likely to consume sweet drinks daily at age 7, 39% and 44% more likely to consume sweet foods daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively, and they were 47% and 33% less likely to consume fruits/vegetables daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively. Surgent 1.5-year-olds (active, sociable) were 197% and 78% more likely to consume two portions of fruits/vegetables daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively. The association of maternal negative affectivity was limited to the child’s consumption of sweet foods at 3 and 7 years.
Conclusion
Early child temperament is a risk factor for obesogenic diet in later childhood. Mechanisms explaining this association need to be explored.
doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e31826bac0d
PMCID: PMC3492946  PMID: 23117597
child; temperament; obesity; diet; eating
2.  Intake of Mediterranean foods associated with positive affect and low negative affect 
Journal of psychosomatic research  2012;74(2):142-148.
Objective
To examine associations between consumption of foods typical of Mediterranean versus Western diets with positive and negative affect. Nutrients influence mental states yet few studies have examined whether foods protective or deleterious for cardiovascular disease affect mood.
Methods
Participants were 9255 Adventist church attendees in North America who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002–6. Scores for affect were obtained from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule questionnaire in 2006–7. Multiple linear regression models controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, sleep, sleep squared (to account for high or low amounts), exercise, total caloric intake, alcohol and time between the questionnaires.
Results
Intake of vegetables (β=0.124 [95% CI 0.101, 0.147]), fruit (β=0.066 [95% CI 0.046, 0.085]), olive oil (β=0.070 [95% CI 0.029, 0.111]), nuts (β=0.054 [95% CI 0.026, 0.082]), and legumes (β=0.055 [95% CI 0.032, 0.077]) were associated with positive affect while sweets/desserts (β=−0.066 [95% CI −0.086, −0.046]), soda (β=−0.025 [95% CI −0.037, −0.013]) and fast food frequency (β=−0.046 [95% CI −0.062, −0.030]) were inversely associated with positive affect. Intake of sweets/desserts (β=0.058 [95% CI 0.037, 0.078]) and fast food frequency (β=0.052 [95% CI 0.036, 0.068]) were associated with negative affect while intake of vegetables (β=−0.076 [95% CI −0.099, −0.052]), fruit (β=−0.033 [95% CI −0.053, −0.014]) and nuts (β=−0.088 [95% CI −0.116, −0.060]) were inversely associated with negative affect. Gender interacted with red meat intake (P<.001) and fast food frequency (P<.001) such that these foods were associated with negative affect in females only.
Conclusions
Foods typical of Mediterranean diets were associated with positive affect as well as lower negative affect while Western foods were associated with low positive affect in general and negative affect in women.
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
PMCID: PMC3790574  PMID: 23332529
Affect; Dietary behaviors; Mediterranean; Mental health; Western
3.  Validation of Recall of Body Weight over a 26 year Period in Cohort Members of Adventist Health Study 2 
Annals of epidemiology  2012;22(10):744-746.
doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2012.06.106
PMCID: PMC3459141  PMID: 22863312
Recall Bias; Correlation Coefficient; Overweight; Elderly; Body Mass Index

Results 1-4 (4)