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author:("Suzuki, azumi")
1.  Docetaxel with or without estramustine for estramustine refractory castration-resistant prostate cancer: a single institution experience 
BMC Urology  2012;12:3.
Background
The significance of combination of docetaxel (DTX) with estramustine phosphate (EMP) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of DTX with or without EMP and to elucidate the significance of DTX and EMP combination therapy in Japanese EMP-refractory CRPC patients.
Methods
To compare the efficacy and toxicity of DTX and EMP, we divided CRPC patients, who were confirmed to be resistant to EMP, into the following two groups: group D (n = 28), which included patients treated with DTX (60 mg/m2, once in every four weeks) alone, and group DE (n = 33), which included patients treated with a combination of DTX (60 mg/m2, once in every four weeks) and EMP (twice daily oral administration at 280 mg).
Results
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) response (> 50% decline in PSA) was observed in six patients (21%) in group D and eight patients (24%) in group DE. The median time to progression (TTP) was 12.0 months and 6.2 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 26.4 months and 24.3 months in group D and DE, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of PSA response, TTP, and OS. The incidence of adverse events of grade 3/4 was low in both the groups, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups.
Conclusions
Although treatment with DTX at 60 mg/m2 was effective and highly tolerated in EMP-refractory Japanese CRPC patients, the DTX and EMP combination therapy might not exhibit any survival benefit for CRPC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-3
PMCID: PMC3305626  PMID: 22353627
2.  Life-threatening acute acalculous cholecystitis in a patient with renal cell carcinoma treated by sunitinib: a case report 
Introduction
Sunitinib, an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is widely used in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor and has had a variety of adverse events. However, sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis has been reported in only two patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor and renal cell carcinoma (clear cell subtype).
Case presentation
A 75-year-old Japanese woman with a right sided abdominal swelling was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) showed a hypervascular bulky tumor in her right kidney, suggesting right renal cell carcinoma in clinical T4N0M0. Although sunitinib therapy was started as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, during the fourth week of the first cycle, she developed acute acalculous cholecystitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with sunitinib. Sunitinib therapy was discontinued immediately and she recovered after subsequent treatment with antibiotics and gabexate mesilate followed by percutaneous cholecystostomy. Cholecystectomy and right radical nephrectomy were performed and pathological examination showed that her renal tumor was a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (pT2) with necrosis. Inflammation and ischemia were observed in the gallbladder wall, which was compatible with acute acalculous cholecystitis. There has been no evidence of disease recurrence for more than six months.
Conclusion
We described the third case of sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis in a patient with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Attention is required to sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis which, while uncommon, could be life-threatening.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-69
PMCID: PMC3307430  PMID: 22348690
3.  A calmodulin inhibitor, W-7 influences the effect of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate signaling on ligninolytic enzyme gene expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium 
AMB Express  2012;2:7.
The capacity of white-rot fungi to degrade wood lignin may be highly applicable to the development of novel bioreactor systems, but the mechanisms underlying this function are not yet fully understood. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), which are thought to be very important for the ligninolytic property, demonstrated increased activity in Phanerochaete chrysosporium RP-78 (FGSC #9002, ATCC MYA-4764™) cultures following exposure to 5 mM cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and 500 μM 3'-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that transcription of most LiP and MnP isozyme genes was statistically significantly upregulated in the presence of the cAMP and IBMX compared to the untreated condition. However, 100 μM calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), which had insignificant effects on fungal growth and intracellular cAMP concentration, not only offset the increased activity and transcription induced by the drugs, but also decreased them to below basal levels. Like the isozyme genes, transcription of the CaM gene (cam) was also upregulated by cAMP and IBMX. These results suggest that cAMP signaling functions to increase the transcription of LiP and MnP through the induction of cam transcription.
doi:10.1186/2191-0855-2-7
PMCID: PMC3275468  PMID: 22273182
Phanerochaete chrysosporium; cAMP signaling; Calmodulin signaling; Lignin peroxidase; Manganese peroxidase

Results 1-3 (3)