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1.  Increased risk of lung cancer in individuals with a family history of the disease: A pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium 
Background and Methods
Familial aggregation of lung cancer exists after accounting for cigarette smoking. However, the extent to which family history affects risk by smoking status, histology, relative type and ethnicity is not well described. This pooled analysis included 24 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Each study collected age of onset/interview, gender, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, histology and first-degree family history of lung cancer. Data from 24,380 lung cancer cases and 23,305 healthy controls were analyzed. Unconditional logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
Results
Individuals with a first-degree relative with lung cancer had a 1.51-fold increase in risk of lung cancer, after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders(95% CI: 1.39, 1.63). The association was strongest for those with a family history in a sibling, after adjustment (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.62, 2.05). No modifying effect by histologic type was found. Never smokers showed a lower association with positive familial history of lung cancer (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.52), slightly stronger for those with an affected sibling (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93), after adjustment.
Conclusions
The increased risk among never smokers and similar magnitudes of the effect of family history on lung cancer risk across histological types suggests familial aggregation of lung cancer is independent of those associated with cigarette smoking. While the role of genetic variation in the etiology of lung cancer remains to be fully characterized, family history assessment is immediately available and those with a positive history represent a higher risk group.
doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2012.01.038
PMCID: PMC3445438  PMID: 22436981
2.  Genetic Polymorphisms in Double-Strand Break DNA Repair Genes Associate with Risk of Oral Premalignant Lesions 
Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are early genetic events en route to oral cancer. To identify individuals susceptible to OPL is critical to the prevention of oral cancer. In a case-control study consisting of 147 patients with histologically confirmed OPL and 147 matched controls, we evaluated the associations of 10 genetic variants in nine genes of the double-strand break (DSB) DNA repair pathway with OPL risk. The most notable finding was an intronic polymorphism (A17893G) of the XRCC3 gene. Compared with the homozygous wild-type AA genotype, the odds ratios [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) for the heterozygous AG and homozygous variant GG genotype were 0.85 (0.49–1.48) and 0.18 (0.07–0.47), respectively (P for trend=0.002). In addition, compared with the most common A-C haplotype of XRCC3 (in the order of A17893G-T241M), the G-C haplotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of OPL (OR=0.40, 95% CI 0.23–0.68). Moreover, compared with individuals without the G-C haplotype, the ORs were 1.04 (0.56–1.95) and 0.20 (0.08–0.51) for subjects with one copy and two copies of the G-C haplotype, respectively (P for trend=0.005). Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis further revealed potential high-order gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions and categorized subjects into different risk groups according to their specific polymorphic signatures. Overall, our study provides the first epidemiological evidence supporting a connection between DSB gene variants and OPL development. Our data also suggest that the effects of high-order interactions should be taken into consideration when evaluating OPL predisposition.
doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2008.05.006
PMCID: PMC2603619  PMID: 18579371
Double-strand break; Polymorphism; Haplotype; Oral premalignant lesion

Results 1-2 (2)