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1.  The Influence of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α –308 G/A and IL-6 –174 G/C on Pain and Analgesia Response in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Supportive Care 
We previously showed that select cytokine gene polymorphisms are a significant predictor for pain reported at initial presentation in 446 white patients newly diagnosed with non–small cell lung cancer. This follow-up study explores the extent to which polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α-308 G/A), interleukin (IL)-6 −174G/C, and IL-8 −251T/A could explain variability in pain and analgesic response among those patients (n = 140) subsequently referred for pain treatment.
Pain severity (0, no pain; 10, worst pain) was assessed at initial consultation and at follow-up visit. The total dose of opioids at the time of first-follow up visit (30 days postconsult) was converted to an equivalent dose of parenteral morphine.
Forty-one percent (57 of 140) of the patients reported severe pain (score >7/10) at initial consultation (mean, 5.5), which significantly decreased to 25% (mean, 4) at first follow-up visit (McNemar = P < 0.001). Polymorphisms in TNF and IL-6 were significantly associated with pain severity (for TNF GG, 4.12; GA, 5.38; AA, 5.50; P = 0.04) and with morphine equivalent daily dose (IL-6 GG, 69.61; GC, 73.17; CC, 181.67; P = 0.004), respectively. Adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, variant alleles in TNFα −308 G/A remained significantly associated with pain severity (b = 0.226; P = 0.036) and carriers of the IL-6 −174C/C genotypes required 4.7 times higher dose of opioids for pain relief (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2;15.0) relative to GG and GC genotypes.
We provide preliminary evidence of the influence of cytokine genes on pain and response to analgesia in lung cancer patients. Additional studies are needed to validate our findings. The long-term application is to tailored pain therapies.
PMCID: PMC3398799  PMID: 18990769
2.  Genetic and Non-Genetic Covariates of Pain Severity in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas: Assessing the Influence of Cytokine Genes 
We previously demonstrated that select cytokine gene polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-8 are a significant predictor for pain and analgesia in patients with lung cancer. This study explores the role of thirteen potentially functional polymorphisms in cytokine genes including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 1 (NFkappaB1) in pain severity in patients with pancreatic cancer. We evaluated a series opatients with histologically-confirmed adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (n=484) who had completed a self-administered survey of pain prior to initiating any cancer treatment. DNA (n=156) available for a subset of white patients was assayed and assessed for association with pain severity. Results showed that 26% (128/484) reported experiencing severe pain (score of > 7 on a 0–10 scale). Severe pain varied by stage of disease (odds ratio [OR] Stage II=4.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07, 15.07; Stage III=5.02, 95% CI=1.28, 19.61; Stage IV=6.90, 95% CI=1.96, 24.29), ethnicity (OR non-Hispanic blacks=3.67; 95% CI=1.44, 9.38), reports of depressed mood (OR=1.94; 95% CI=1.09, 3.43), and female sex (OR=1.78; 95% CI=1.04, 3.05). Controlling for these covariates, IL8-251T/A (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.3, 4.7, P<0.009) significantly predicted severe pain in a subset of white patients. When we adjusted for reported analgesic use, we found that IL8-251T/A persisted as a predictor for severe pain, with carriers of TT and AT genotypes having more than a threefold risk (OR=3.23, 95% CI=1.4, 4.7) for severe pain relative to the AA genotypes. We provide preliminary evidence of the role of IL-8 in the severity of pain in pancreatic cancer patients. Additional studies are needed in larger cohorts of patients.
PMCID: PMC2795073  PMID: 19692203
Pain; genes; cytokines; epidemiology; cancer; analgesia; molecular epidemiology
3.  The role of inflammation gene polymorphisms on pain severity in lung cancer patients 
Many of the same inflammatory factors that promote tumor growth are also hypothesized to function as pain modulators. There is substantial interindividual variation in pain severity in cancer patients. Therefore, we evaluated 59 SNPs in 37 inflammation genes in newly diagnosed non-Hispanic Caucasian lung cancer patients (n=667) and assessed their association with pain severity. Patients rated their pain “during the past week” on an 11-point numeric scale, (0= ‘no pain’ and 10= ‘pain as bad as you can imagine’) at presentation, prior to initiating cancer therapy. Reported analgesic use was abstracted from charts and converted to an equivalent dose of morphine (MEDD). Results showed that 16% of the patients reported severe pain (score ≥ 7). Advanced stage of disease (OR=2.34; 95% CI=1.50-3.65, p-value=0.001), age≤ 50 (OR=2.10; 95%CI=1.32-3.30, p-value=0.002), reports of depressed mood (OR=3.68; 95%CI=1.96-6.93, p-value=0.001); fatigue (OR=3.72; 95% CI=2.36-5.87, p-value=0.001) and MEDD (OR=1.02; 95% C.I=1.01, 1.03) were significantly correlated with severe pain. Controlling for these non-genetic covariates, we found that patients with CC genotypes for PTGS2 exon10+837T>C (rs5275) were at lower risk for severe pain (OR=0.33; 95% Confidence Interval=0.11-0.97) and an additive model for TNF α -308GA (rs1800629) (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.08,2.58) and NFKBIA Ex6+50C>T (rs8904) was predictive of severe pain (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.43,0.93). In a multi-gene analysis, we found a gene-dose effect, with each protective genotype reducing the risk for severe pain by as much as 38%. This study suggests the importance of inflammation gene polymorphisms in modulating pain severity. Additional studies are needed to validate our findings.
PMCID: PMC2759856  PMID: 19773451
Pain; Genes; Inflammation; Epidemiology; Cancer

Results 1-3 (3)