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1.  Multistage analysis of variants in the Inflammation pathway and lung cancer risk in smokers 
BACKGROUND
Tobacco-induced lung cancer is characterized by a deregulated inflammatory microenvironment. Variants in multiple genes in inflammation pathways may contribute to risk of lung cancer.
METHODS
We therefore conducted a three-stage comprehensive pathway analysis (discovery, replication and meta-analysis) of inflammation gene variants in ever smoking lung cancer cases and controls. A discovery set (1096 cases; 727 controls) and an independent and non-overlapping internal replication set (1154 cases; 1137 controls) were derived from an ongoing case-control study. For discovery, we used an iSelect BeadChip to interrogate a comprehensive panel of 11737 inflammation pathway SNPs and selected nominally significant (p<0.05) SNPs for internal replication.
RESULTS
There were 6 SNPs that achieved statistical significance (p<0.05) in the internal replication dataset with concordant risk estimates for former smokers and 5 concordant and replicated SNPs in current smokers. Replicated hits were further tested in a subsequent meta-analysis using external data derived from two published GWAS and a case-control study. Two of these variants (a BCL2L14 SNP in former smokers and a SNP in IL2RB in current smokers) were further validated. In risk score analyses, there was a 26% increase in risk with each additional adverse allele when we combined the genotyped SNP and the most significant imputed SNP in IL2RB in current smokers and a 36% similar increase in risk for former smokers associated with genotyped and imputed BCL2L14 SNPs.
CONCLUSIONS/IMPACT
Before they can be applied for risk prediction efforts, these SNPs should be subject to further external replication and more extensive fine mapping studies.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0352-T
PMCID: PMC3487592  PMID: 22573796
Inflammation SNPS; lung cancer; smokers
2.  Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer 
Jacobs, Kevin B | Yeager, Meredith | Zhou, Weiyin | Wacholder, Sholom | Wang, Zhaoming | Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin | Hutchinson, Amy | Deng, Xiang | Liu, Chenwei | Horner, Marie-Josephe | Cullen, Michael | Epstein, Caroline G | Burdett, Laurie | Dean, Michael C | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Sampson, Joshua | Chung, Charles C | Kovaks, Joseph | Gapstur, Susan M | Stevens, Victoria L | Teras, Lauren T | Gaudet, Mia M | Albanes, Demetrius | Weinstein, Stephanie J | Virtamo, Jarmo | Taylor, Philip R | Freedman, Neal D | Abnet, Christian C | Goldstein, Alisa M | Hu, Nan | Yu, Kai | Yuan, Jian-Min | Liao, Linda | Ding, Ti | Qiao, You-Lin | Gao, Yu-Tang | Koh, Woon-Puay | Xiang, Yong-Bing | Tang, Ze-Zhong | Fan, Jin-Hu | Aldrich, Melinda C | Amos, Christopher | Blot, William J | Bock, Cathryn H | Gillanders, Elizabeth M | Harris, Curtis C | Haiman, Christopher A | Henderson, Brian E | Kolonel, Laurence N | Le Marchand, Loic | McNeill, Lorna H | Rybicki, Benjamin A | Schwartz, Ann G | Signorello, Lisa B | Spitz, Margaret R | Wiencke, John K | Wrensch, Margaret | Wu, Xifeng | Zanetti, Krista A | Ziegler, Regina G | Figueroa, Jonine D | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Malats, Nuria | Marenne, Gaelle | Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila | Baris, Dalsu | Schwenn, Molly | Johnson, Alison | Landi, Maria Teresa | Goldin, Lynn | Consonni, Dario | Bertazzi, Pier Alberto | Rotunno, Melissa | Rajaraman, Preetha | Andersson, Ulrika | Freeman, Laura E Beane | Berg, Christine D | Buring, Julie E | Butler, Mary A | Carreon, Tania | Feychting, Maria | Ahlbom, Anders | Gaziano, J Michael | Giles, Graham G | Hallmans, Goran | Hankinson, Susan E | Hartge, Patricia | Henriksson, Roger | Inskip, Peter D | Johansen, Christoffer | Landgren, Annelie | McKean-Cowdin, Roberta | Michaud, Dominique S | Melin, Beatrice S | Peters, Ulrike | Ruder, Avima M | Sesso, Howard D | Severi, Gianluca | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Visvanathan, Kala | White, Emily | Wolk, Alicja | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Zheng, Wei | Silverman, Debra T | Kogevinas, Manolis | Gonzalez, Juan R | Villa, Olaya | Li, Donghui | Duell, Eric J | Risch, Harvey A | Olson, Sara H | Kooperberg, Charles | Wolpin, Brian M | Jiao, Li | Hassan, Manal | Wheeler, William | Arslan, Alan A | Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H | Fuchs, Charles S | Gallinger, Steven | Gross, Myron D | Holly, Elizabeth A | Klein, Alison P | LaCroix, Andrea | Mandelson, Margaret T | Petersen, Gloria | Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine | Bracci, Paige M | Canzian, Federico | Chang, Kenneth | Cotterchio, Michelle | Giovannucci, Edward L | Goggins, Michael | Bolton, Judith A Hoffman | Jenab, Mazda | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Krogh, Vittorio | Kurtz, Robert C | McWilliams, Robert R | Mendelsohn, Julie B | Rabe, Kari G | Riboli, Elio | Tjønneland, Anne | Tobias, Geoffrey S | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Elena, Joanne W | Yu, Herbert | Amundadottir, Laufey | Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z | Kraft, Peter | Schumacher, Fredrick | Stram, Daniel | Savage, Sharon A | Mirabello, Lisa | Andrulis, Irene L | Wunder, Jay S | García, Ana Patiño | Sierrasesúmaga, Luis | Barkauskas, Donald A | Gorlick, Richard G | Purdue, Mark | Chow, Wong-Ho | Moore, Lee E | Schwartz, Kendra L | Davis, Faith G | Hsing, Ann W | Berndt, Sonja I | Black, Amanda | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Brinton, Louise A | Lissowska, Jolanta | Peplonska, Beata | McGlynn, Katherine A | Cook, Michael B | Graubard, Barry I | Kratz, Christian P | Greene, Mark H | Erickson, Ralph L | Hunter, David J | Thomas, Gilles | Hoover, Robert N | Real, Francisco X | Fraumeni, Joseph F | Caporaso, Neil E | Tucker, Margaret | Rothman, Nathaniel | Pérez-Jurado, Luis A | Chanock, Stephen J
Nature genetics  2012;44(6):651-658.
In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls drawn from 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones from DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of size >2 Mb were observed in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%) with abnormal cell proportions between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, the frequency increased with age; 0.23% under 50 and 1.91% between 75 and 79 (p=4.8×10−8). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid-tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals, OR=1.25, p=0.016), with a stronger association for cases who had DNA collected prior to diagnosis or treatment (OR=1.45, p=0.0005). Detectable clonal mosaicism was common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least one year prior to diagnosis of leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR=35.4, p=3.8×10−11). These findings underscore the importance of the role and time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and other late-onset diseases.
doi:10.1038/ng.2270
PMCID: PMC3372921  PMID: 22561519
3.  Inherited variation at chromosome 12p13.33 including RAD52 influences squamous cell lung carcinoma risk 
Cancer Discovery  2011;2(2):131-139.
While lung cancer is largely caused by tobacco smoking, inherited genetic factors play a role in its etiology. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Europeans have robustly demonstrated only three polymorphic variations influencing lung cancer risk. Tumor heterogeneity may have hampered the detection of association signal when all lung cancer subtypes were analyzed together. In a GWAS of 5,355 European smoking lung cancer cases and 4,344 smoking controls, we conducted a pathway-based analysis in lung cancer histologic subtypes with 19,082 SNPs mapping to 917 genes in the HuGE-defined “inflammation” pathway. We identified a susceptibility locus for squamous cell lung carcinoma (SQ) at 12p13.33 (RAD52, rs6489769), and replicated the association in three independent samples totaling 3,359 SQ cases and 9,100 controls (odds ratio=1.20, Pcombined=2.3×10−8).
Significance
The combination of pathway-based approaches and information on disease specific subtypes can improve the identification of cancer susceptibility loci in heterogeneous diseases.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0246
PMCID: PMC3354721  PMID: 22585858
Lung cancer; histology; squamous cell carcinoma; pathway analysis; RAD52
4.  An analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of 125 DNA repair genes in the Texas genome-wide association study of lung cancer with a replication for the XRCC4 SNPs 
DNA repair  2011;10(4):398-407.
DNA repair genes are important for maintaining genomic stability and limiting carcinogenesis. We analyzed all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 125 DNA repair genes covered by the Illumina HumanHap300 (v1.1) BeadChips in a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,154 lung cancer cases and 1,137 controls and replicated the top-hits of XRCC4 SNPs in an independent set of 597 cases and 611 controls in Texas populations. We found that six of 20 XRCC4 SNPs were associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer with a P value of 0.01 or lower in the discovery dataset, of which the most significant SNP was rs10040363 (P for allelic test = 4.89 ×10−4). Moreover, the data in this region allowed us to impute a potentially functional SNP rs2075685 (imputed P for allelic test = 1.3 ×10−3). A luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the rs2075685G>T change in the XRCC4 promoter increased expression of the gene. In the replication study of rs10040363, rs1478486, rs9293329, and rs2075685, however, only rs10040363 achieved a borderline association with a decreased risk of lung cancer in a dominant model (adjusted OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.62–1.03, P = 0.079). In the final combined analysis of both the Texas GWAS discovery and replication datasets, the strength of the association was increased for rs10040363 (adjusted OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.89, Pdominant = 5×10−4 and P for trend = 5×10−4) and rs1478486 (adjusted OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.71 −0.94, Pdominant = 6×10−3 and P for trend = 3.5×10−3). Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of these XRCC4 SNPs with available data from published GWA studies of lung cancer with a total of 12,312 cases and 47,921 controls, in which none of these XRCC4 SNPs was associated with lung cancer risk. It appeared that rs2075685, although associated with increased expression of a reporter gene and lung cancer risk in the Texas populations, did not have an effect on lung cancer risk in other populations. This study underscores the importance of replication using published data in larger populations.
doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2011.01.005
PMCID: PMC3062723  PMID: 21296624
XRCC4; variant; Genetic susceptibility; genome-wide association study; replication study
5.  Association of a novel functional promoter variant (rs2075533 C>T) in the apoptosis gene TNFSF8 with risk of lung cancer—a finding from Texas lung cancer genome-wide association study 
Carcinogenesis  2011;32(4):507-515.
Published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified few variants in the known biological pathways involved in lung cancer etiology. To mine the possibly hidden causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we explored all SNPs in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway from our published GWAS dataset for 1154 lung cancer cases and 1137 cancer-free controls. In an initial association analysis of 611 tagSNPs in 41 apoptosis-related genes, we identified only 10 tagSNPs associated with lung cancer risk with a P value <10−2, including four tagSNPs in DAPK1 and three tagSNPs in TNFSF8. Unlike DAPK1 SNPs, TNFSF8 rs2181033 tagged other four predicted functional but untyped SNPs (rs776576, rs776577, rs31813148 and rs2075533) in the promoter region. Therefore, we further tested binding affinity of these four SNPs by performing the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We found that only rs2075533T allele modified levels of nuclear proteins bound to DNA, leading to significantly decreased expression of luciferase reporter constructs by 5- to –10-fold in H1299, HeLa and HCT116 cell lines compared with the C allele. We also performed a replication study of the untyped rs2075533 in an independent Texas population but did not confirm the protective effect. We further performed a mini meta-analysis for SNPs of TNFSF8 obtained from other four published lung cancer GWASs with 12  214 cases and 47  721 controls, and we found that only rs3181366 (r2 = 0.69 with the untyped rs2075533) was associated to lung cancer risk (P = 0.008). Our findings suggest a possible role of novel TNFSF8 variants in susceptibility to lung cancer.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgr014
PMCID: PMC3066422  PMID: 21292647

Results 1-6 (6)