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1.  Dimensionality of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in the young collegiate adults 
SpringerPlus  2016;5(1):1550.
To explore and validate the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in young collegiate adults.
Six hundred university students were initially contacted and invited to participate in a survey of their sleep experience and history. Of this preliminary sample 418 of the students (age = 20.92 ± 1.81 years, BMI = 23.30 ± 2.57 kg/m2) fulfilled the screening criteria and ultimately completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a self-report survey of respondents’ sleep habits and sleep quality. The students were enrolled in various undergraduate and postgraduate programs at Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) investigated the latent factor structure of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis evaluated both of the models found by EFA.
The Kaiser’s criteria, the Scree test, and the cumulative variance rule revealed that a 2-factor model accounted for most of the variability in the data. However, a follow up Parallel Analysis found a 1-factor model. The high correlation coefficient (r = 0.91) between the two factors of the 2-factor model and almost similar values of the fit indices supports the inference that the PSQI is a unidimensional scale.
The findings validate the 1-factor model of the PSQI in young collegiate adults.
PMCID: PMC5021660  PMID: 27652123
Confirmatory factor analysis; Exploratory factor analysis; Collegiate, young adults; Model fit; Students
2.  Sleep architecture of consolidated and split sleep due to the dawn (Fajr) prayer among Muslims and its impact on daytime sleepiness 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(1):36-41.
Muslims are required to wake up early to pray (Fajr) at dawn (approximately one and one-half hours before sunrise). Some Muslims wake up to pray Fajr and then sleep until it is time to work (split sleep), whereas others sleep continuously (consolidated sleep) until work time and pray Fajr upon awakening.
To objectively assess sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness in consolidated and split sleep due to the Fajr prayer.
A cross-sectional, single-center observational study in eight healthy male subjects with a mean age of 32.0 ± 2.4 years.
The participants spent three nights in the Sleep Disorders Center (SDC) at King Khalid University Hospital, where they participated in the study, which included (1) a medical checkup and an adaptation night, (2) a consolidated sleep night, and (3) a split-sleep night. Polysomnography (PSG) was conducted in the SDC following the standard protocol. Participants went to bed at 11:30 PM and woke up at 7:00 AM in the consolidated sleep protocol. In the split-sleep protocol, participants went to bed at 11:30 PM, woke up at 3:30 AM for 45 minutes, went back to bed at 4:15 AM, and finally woke up at 7:45 AM. PSG was followed by a multiple sleep latency test to assess the daytime sleepiness of the participants.
There were no differences in sleep efficiency, the distribution of sleep stages, or daytime sleepiness between the two protocols.
No differences were detected in sleep architecture or daytime sleepiness in the consolidated and split-sleep schedules when the total sleep duration was maintained.
PMCID: PMC3277040  PMID: 22347349
Consolidated sleep; daytime sleepiness; Fajr prayer; sleep architecture; split sleep

Results 1-3 (3)