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1.  Site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers, 1986–2007 
Objective
To assess site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers 1986–2007.
Methods
The Baltic cohort includes 17,040 men from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania who participated in the environmental cleanup after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in 1986–1991, and who were followed for cancer incidence until the end of 2007. Cancer cases diagnosed in the cohort and in the male population of each country were identified from the respective national cancer registers. The proportional incidence ratio (PIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the site-specific cancer risk in the cohort. For comparison and as it was possible, the site-specific standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for the Estonian sub-cohort, which was not feasible for the other countries.
Results
Overall, 756 cancer cases were reported during 1986–2007. A higher proportion of thyroid cancers in relation to the male population was found (PIR=2.76; 95%CI 1.63–4.36), especially among those who started their mission shortly after the accident, in April–May 1986 (PIR=6.38; 95% CI 2.34–13.89). Also, an excess of oesophageal cancers was noted (PIR=1.52; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). No increased PIRs for leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined were observed. PIRs and SIRs for the Estonian sub-cohort demonstrated the same site-specific cancer risk pattern.
Conclusion
Consistent evidence of an increase in radiation-related cancers in the Baltic cohort was not observed with the possible exception of thyroid cancer, where conclusions are hampered by known medical examination including thyroid screening among cleanup workers.
doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2013.04.014
PMCID: PMC3739289  PMID: 23683549
Chernobyl nuclear accident; neoplasms; incidence; radiation effects; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania
2.  The quality of life after a total gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy and omega type oesophagojejunostomy for gastric adenocarcinoma without distant metastases 
BMC Surgery  2012;12:11.
Background
To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in relation to age, sex, clinical stage, postoperative complication, and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who underwent curative total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and Omega type esophagojejunostomy for gastric adenocarcinoma.
Methods
69 patients were included. Lithuanian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Cancer 30 was sent to all of them from six months to two years after gastric surgery for self-completion. 34 questionnaires were filled and were used as material for further analysis. Influence of age (≥ 65 vs < 65), sex, clinical stage (I–II vs III), surgical complication, and adjuvant chemotherapy was assessed on QOL in this retrospective cross-sectional case series study.
Results
The global health status was better in the group of patients aged over 65 (63.0 points vs 46.4, P = 0.0509). The functional scales were higher in the same group of patients. Significant difference was only observed on the social scale in favour of elders (P = 0.0039). Sex, clinical stage, surgical complications, and postoperative chemotherapy had no significant influence on any aspect of QOL.
Conclusion
The global QOL and the social functioning was better in patients aged 65 years and over, compared to patients under the age of 65 in the period of 6 to 18 months after a total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and Omega esophagojejunostomy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-12-11
PMCID: PMC3407519  PMID: 22734678
Gastric cancer; Total gastrectomy; Extended lymphadenectomy; Omega esophagojejunostomy; Quality of life
3.  Incidentally Found Prostate Cancer and Influence on Overall Survival after Radical Cystoprostatectomy 
Prostate Cancer  2012;2012:690210.
Objectives. To determine incidentally found prostate cancer frequency and impact on overall survival after RCP. Patients and Methods. The records of 81 men who underwent cystoprostatectomy from January 2000 to December 2009 were reviewed. The vital status of the study group was assessed as on September 1, 2009, by passive followup, using data from the population registry. Results. The 81 men underwent RCP. The incidental prostate cancer was found in the specimens of 27 (33.3%) patients. 13 (48.1%) of 27 prostate cancer cases were clinically significant. For 3 patients (11.1%) an extraprostatic extension was found. For 2 patients (7.4%)—positive margins, for 1 patient (3.7%)—Gleason sum 8, and for the rest 7 patients bigger than 0.5 cm3 volume tumor, and Gleason sum 7 was found. The mean follow-up time was 39.2 ± 33.8 months (varies from 0.8 to 131.2 months). The patients with bladder cancer and incidentally found prostate cancer lived shorter (28.1 ± 27.5 and 45.5 ± 35.40 months). Higher overall survival (P = 0.03) was found in the patient group with bladder cancer without incidentally diagnosed prostate cancer. Conclusion. There are indications that in this small study prostate cancer has influenced on patients' survival with bladder cancer after radical cystoprostatectomy.
doi:10.1155/2012/690210
PMCID: PMC3372048  PMID: 22701798
4.  Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania 
BMC Public Health  2008;8:56.
Background
The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania.
Methods
Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard) were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC) was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations.
Results
For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000) and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p < 0.05). During the study period the age-standardized mortality rates decreased in both sexes in urban residents. The decreasing mortality trend in urban population was contributed by decline of the rates of lung and stomach cancer in male and breast, stomach and colorectal cancer in female. Mortality rates in both urban and rural population were increasing for prostate and cervical cancers.
Conclusion
This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-56
PMCID: PMC2259339  PMID: 18267035
5.  Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania in 1978–2003 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:284.
Background
The aim of this paper is to analyze changes in thyroid cancer incidence trends in Lithuania during the period 1978–2003 using joinpoint regression models, with special attention to the period 1993–2003.
Methods
The study was based on all cases of thyroid cancer reported to the Lithuanian Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2003. Age group-specific rates and standardized rates were calculated for each gender, using the direct method (world standard population). The joinpoint regression model was used to provide estimated annual percentage change and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occur.
Results
During the study period the age-standardized incidence rates increased in males from 0.7 to 2.5 cases per 100 000 and in females from 1.5 to 11.4 per 100 000. Annual percentage changes during this period in the age-standardized rates were 4.6% and 7.1% for males and females, respectively. Joinpoint analysis showed two time periods with joinpoint in the year 2000. A change in the trend occurred in which a significant increase changed to a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates. Papillary carcinoma and stage I thyroid cancer increases over this period were mainly responsible for the pattern of changes in trend in recent years.
Conclusion
A moderate increase in thyroid cancer incidence has been observed in Lithuania between the years 1978 and 2000. An accelerated increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates took place in the period 2000–2003. It seems that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence can be attributed mainly to the changes in the management of non palpable thyroid nodules with growing applications of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in clinical practice.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-284
PMCID: PMC1764427  PMID: 17156468

Results 1-5 (5)