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author:("Singh, ladji")
1.  High prevalence of Arginine to Glutamine Substitution at 98, 141 and 162 positions in Troponin I (TNNI3) associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy among Indians 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:69.
Background
Troponin I (TNNI3) is the inhibitory subunit of the thin filament regulatory complex Troponin, which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity. Mutations (2-7%) in this gene had been reported in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients (HCM). However, the frequencies of mutations and associated clinical presentation have not been established in cardiomyopathy patients of Indian origin, hence we have undertaken this study.
Methods
We have sequenced all the exons, including the exon-intron boundaries of TNNI3 gene in 101 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients (HCM), along with 160 healthy controls, inhabited in the same geographical region of southern India.
Results
Our study revealed a total of 16 mutations. Interestingly, we have observed Arginine to Glutamine (R to Q) mutation at 3 positions 98, 141 and 162, exclusively in HCM patients with family history of sudden cardiac death. The novel R98Q was observed in a severe hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy patient (HOCM). The R141Q mutation was observed in two familial cases of severe asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH++). The R162Q mutation was observed in a ASH++ patient with mean septal thickness of 29 mm, and have also consists of allelic heterogeneity by means of having one more synonymous (E179E) mutation at g.4797: G → A: in the same exon 7, which replaces a very frequent codon (GAG: 85%) with a rare codon (GAA: 14%). Screening for R162Q mutation in all the available family members revealed its presence in 9 individuals, including 7 with allelic heterogeneity (R162Q and E179E) of which 4 were severely affected. We also found 2 novel SNPs, (g.2653; G → A and g.4003 C → T) exclusively in HCM, and in silico analysis of these SNPs have predicted to cause defect in recognition/binding sites for proteins responsible for proper splicing.
Conclusion
Our study has provided valuable information regarding the prevalence of TNNI3 mutations in Indian HCM patients and its risk assessment, these will help in genetic counseling and to adopt appropriate treatment strategies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-69
PMCID: PMC3495047  PMID: 22876777
TNNI3-Troponin I; Cardiomyopathy; SNPs; HCM; Indians; Mutations
2.  A novel mutation in STK11 gene is associated with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome in Indian patients 
BMC Medical Genetics  2006;7:73.
Background
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare multi-organ cancer syndrome and understanding its genetic basis may help comprehend the molecular mechanism of familial cancer. A number of germ line mutations in the STK11 gene, encoding a serine threonine kinase have been reported in these patients. However, STK11 mutations do not explain all PJS cases. An earlier study reported absence of STK11 mutations in two Indian families and suggested another potential locus on 19q13.4 in one of them.
Methods
We sequenced the promoter and the coding region including the splice-site junctions of the STK11 gene in 16 affected members from ten well-characterized Indian PJS families with a positive family history.
Results
We did not observe any of the reported mutations in the STK11 gene in the index patients from these families. We identified a novel pathogenic mutation (c.790_793 delTTTG) in the STK11 gene in one index patient (10%) and three members of his family. The mutation resulted in a frame-shift leading to premature termination of the STK11 protein at 286th codon, disruption of kinase domain and complete loss of C-terminal regulatory domain. Based on these results, we could offer predictive genetic testing, prenatal diagnosis and genetic counselling to other members of the family.
Conclusion
Ours is the first study reporting the presence of STK11 mutation in Indian PJS patients. It also suggests that reported mutations in the STK11 gene are not responsible for the disease and novel mutations also do not account for many Indian PJS patients. Large-scale genomic deletions in the STK11 gene or another locus may be associated with the PJS phenotype in India and are worth future investigation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-7-73
PMCID: PMC1609100  PMID: 17010210

Results 1-2 (2)