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1.  Estimation of Second Polar Body Retention Rate After Conventional Insemination and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: In Vitro Observations from More Than 5000 Human Oocytes 
Purpose: Tripronucleate (3pn) development after conventional insemination (CONV) or ICSI was analyzed to estimate the rate of second polar body retention giving rise to 3pn formation.
Methods: Data from 453 consecutive IVF cycles were reviewed during a 6-month period. Mature oocytes were monitored in ICSI (n = 3195) and CONV (n = 2274) groups by fertilization assessment 16–18 h post-insemination. Ovulation induction protocols and in vitro culture conditions remained constant during the study interval.
Results: Normal (2pn) fertilization occurred in 74.2% and 70.5% for CONV and ICSI groups, respectively (p < 0.003). 1pn formation was observed in 4.5% of CONV oocytes, and 2.5% of ICSI oocytes (p < 0.001); 3pn formation was 8.1% in the CONV group, and 2.5% in the ICSI group (p < 0.0001). We observed 4pn formation in 0.4% of oocytes in the CONV group, but in only 0.04% of oocytes fertilized with ICSI (p < 0.007). Cellular degeneration occurred in 2.4% of oocytes inseminated conventionally, and in 3.5% of oocytes fertilized by ICSI (p = 0.02). Maternal age did not impact pronuclear status.
Conclusions: We found the 3pn formation rate after ICSI to be approximately one-third that observed in the CONV group. Extrapolating the ICSI data to the CONV data, it may be inferred that 2.5% of 3pn development after CONV was due to second polar body retention. This suggests that 5.6% of CONV oocytes showed dispermic fertilization. Decreasing oocyte quality with increasing maternal age had no apparent influence on any of the fertilization outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3455839  PMID: 14531648
Fertility; fertilization; oocyte; reproductive techniques
2.  Correlations from gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after methotrexate chemotherapy for hemorrhagic placenta increta 
To describe pre- and post-methotrexate (MTX) therapy images from pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine contrast following chemotherapy for post-partum hemorrhage secondary to placenta increta.
Material and method
A 28-year-old Caucasian female presented 4 weeks post-partum complaining of intermittent vaginal bleeding. She underwent dilatation and curettage immediately after vaginal delivery for suspected retained placental tissue but 28 d after delivery, the serum β-hCG persisted at 156 IU/mL. Office transvaginal sonogram (4 mHz B-mode) was performed, followed by pelvic MRI using a 1.5 Tesla instrument after administration of gadolinium-based contrast agent. MTX was administered intramuscularly, and MRI was repeated four weeks later.
While transvaginal sonogram suggested retained products of conception confined to the endometrial compartment, an irregular 53 × 34 × 28 mm heterogeneous intrauterine mass was noted on MRI to extend into the anterior myometrium, consistent with placenta increta. Vaginal bleeding diminished following MTX treatment, with complete discontinuation of bleeding achieved by ~20 d post-injection. MRI using identical technique one month later showed complete resolution of the uterine lesion. Serum β-hCG was <5 IU/mL.
Reduction or elimination of risks associated with surgical management of placenta increta is important to preserve uterine function and reproductive potential. For selected hemodynamically stable patients, placenta increta may be treated non-operatively with MTX as described here. A satisfactory response to MTX can be ascertained by serum hCG measurements with pre- and post-treatment pelvic MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement, which offers advantages over standard transvaginal sonography.
PMCID: PMC280697  PMID: 14617375
magnetic resonance imaging; placenta increta; methotrexate
3.  Monochorionic-triamniotic triplet pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted hatching, and two-embryo transfer: first reported case following IVF 
We present a case of monochorionic-triamniotic pregnancy that developed after embryo transfer following in vitro fertilization (IVF).
After controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and transvaginal retrieval of 22 metaphase II oocytes, fertilization was accomplished with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Assisted embryo hatching was performed, and two embryos were transferred in utero. One non-transferred blastocyst was cryopreserved.
Fourteen days post-transfer, serum hCG level was 423 mIU/ml and subsequent transvaginal ultrasound revealed a single intrauterine gestational sac with three separate amnion compartments. Three distinct foci of cardiac motion were detected and the diagnosis was revised to monochorionic-triamniotic triplet pregnancy. Antenatal management included cerclage placement at 19 weeks gestation and hospital admission at 28 weeks gestation due to mild preeclampsia. Three viable female infants were delivered via cesarean at 30 5/7 weeks gestation.
The incidence of triplet delivery in humans is approximately 1:6400, and such pregnancies are classified as high-risk for reasons described in this report. We also outline an obstetric management strategy designed to optimize outcomes. The roles of IVF, ICSI, assisted embryo hatching and associated laboratory culture conditions on the subsequent development of monozygotic/monochorionic pregnancy remain controversial. As demonstrated here, even when two-embryo transfer is employed after IVF the statistical probability of monozygotic multiple gestation cannot be reduced to zero. We encourage discussion of this possibility during informed consent for the advanced reproductive technologies.
PMCID: PMC184457  PMID: 12906712
triplet pregnancy / IVF / monochorionic / cerclage / outcome
4.  HIV in Africa 
PMCID: PMC539387  PMID: 12519815

Results 1-4 (4)