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author:("Shi, wenchuan")
1.  Specific Binding and Mineralization of Calcified Surfaces by Small Peptides 
Calcified Tissue International  2009;86(1):58-66.
Several small (<25aa) peptides have been designed based on the sequence of the dentin phosphoprotein, one of the major noncollagenous proteins thought to be involved in the mineralization of the dentin extracellular matrix during tooth development. These peptides, consisting of multiple repeats of the tripeptide aspartate-serine-serine (DSS), bind with high affinity to calcium phosphate compounds and, when immobilized, can recruit calcium phosphate to peptide-derivatized polystyrene beads or to demineralized human dentin surfaces. The affinity of binding to hydroxyapatite surfaces increases with the number of (DSS)n repeats, and though similar repeated sequences—(NTT)n, (DTT)n, (ETT)n, (NSS)n, (ESS)n, (DAA)n, (ASS)n, and (NAA)n—also showed HA binding activity, it was generally not at the same level as the natural sequence. Binding of the (DSS)n peptides to sectioned human teeth was shown to be tissue-specific, with high levels of binding to the mantle dentin, lower levels of binding to the circumpulpal dentin, and little or no binding to healthy enamel. Phosphorylation of the serines of these peptides was found to affect the avidity, but not the affinity, of binding. The potential utility of these peptides in the detection of carious lesions, the delivery of therapeutic compounds to mineralized tissues, and the modulation of remineralization is discussed.
doi:10.1007/s00223-009-9312-0
PMCID: PMC2798077  PMID: 19949943
Dentin phosphoprotein; Peptide; Mineralization
2.  β-d-Allose Inhibits Fruiting Body Formation and Sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2006;189(1):169-178.
Myxococcus xanthus, a gram-negative soil bacterium, responds to amino acid starvation by entering a process of multicellular development which culminates in the assembly of spore-filled fruiting bodies. Previous studies utilizing developmental inhibitors (such as methionine, lysine, or threonine) have revealed important clues about the mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation. We used Biolog phenotype microarrays to screen 384 chemicals for complete inhibition of fruiting body development in M. xanthus. Here, we report the identification of a novel inhibitor of fruiting body formation and sporulation, β-d-allose. β-d-Allose, a rare sugar, is a member of the aldohexose family and a C3 epimer of glucose. Our studies show that β-d-allose does not affect cell growth, viability, agglutination, or motility. However, β-galactosidase reporters demonstrate that genes activated between 4 and 14 h of development show significantly lower expression levels in the presence of β-d-allose. Furthermore, inhibition of fruiting body formation occurs only when β-d-allose is added to submerged cultures before 12 h of development. In competition studies, high concentrations of galactose and xylose antagonize the nonfruiting response to β-d-allose, while glucose is capable of partial antagonism. Finally, a magellan-4 transposon mutagenesis screen identified glcK, a putative glucokinase gene, required for β-d-allose-mediated inhibition of fruiting body formation. Subsequent glucokinase activity assays of the glcK mutant further supported the role of this protein in glucose phosphorylation.
doi:10.1128/JB.00792-06
PMCID: PMC1797229  PMID: 17056749

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