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1.  Anxiety, depression and distress among irritable bowel syndrome and their subtypes: An epidemiological population based study 
Background:
Psychiatric disorders are common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted this study to investigate the relationship of IBS and their subtypes with some of psychological factors.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was performed among 4763 staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Modified ROME III questionnaire and Talley Bowel Disease Questionnaire were used to evaluate IBS symptoms. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire were utilized to assess anxiety, depression and psychological distress. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of psychological states and IBS in the total subject and both genders.
Results:
About, 4763 participants with mean age 36/58 ± 8/09 were included the 2106 males and 2657 females. Three thousand and seven hundred and seventy-six (81.2%) and 2650 (57.2%) participants were married and graduated respectively. Subtype analysis of IBS and its relationship with anxiety, depression and distress comparing the two genders can be observed that: IBS and clinically-significant IBS have higher anxiety, depression symptoms, and distress than the subject without IBS (P < 0.001). Women with IBS, have higher scores than men (P < 0.001). Compared to other subtypes, mixed IBS subtype has a higher anxiety, depression, and distress score.
Conclusion:
A high prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms and distress in our subjects emphasize the importance of the psychological evaluation of the patients with IBS, in order to better management of the patients and may also help to reduce the burden of health care costs.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.190938
PMCID: PMC5156966  PMID: 28028523
Anxiety; depression; distress; irritable bowel syndrome; psychiatric problem
2.  Life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports in patients with irritable bowel syndrome 
Background:
The frequency and the perceived intensity of life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports are very important in everybody's well-being. This study intended to estimate the relation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and these factors.
Materials and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Isfahan on 2013. Data were extracted from the framework of the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health, and nutrition. Symptoms of IBS were evaluated by Talley bowel disease questionnaire. Stressful life event, modified COPE scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were also used. About 4763 subjects were completed questionnaires. Analyzing data were done by t-test and multivariate logistic regression.
Results:
Of all returned questionnaire, 1024 (21.5%) were diagnosed with IBS. IBS and clinically-significant IBS (IBS-S) groups have significantly experienced a higher level of perceived intensity of stressors and had a higher frequency of stressors. The mean score of social supports and the mean scores of three coping strategies (problem engagement, support seeking, and positive reinterpretation and growth) were significantly lower in subjects with either IBS-S or IBS than in those with no IBS. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a significant association between frequency of stressors and perceived intensity of stressors with IBS (odds ratio [OR] =1.09 and OR = 1.02, respectively) or IBS-S (OR = 1.09 and OR = 1.03, respectively).
Conclusions:
People with IBS had higher numbers of stressors, higher perception of the intensity of stressors, less adaptive coping strategies, and less social supports which should be focused in psychosocial interventions.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.190935
PMCID: PMC5070037  PMID: 27761433
Coping strategies; irritable bowel syndrome; life stressors; social support
3.  Path analysis of relationship among personality, perceived stress, coping, social support, and psychological outcomes 
World Journal of Psychiatry  2016;6(2):248-256.
AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population.
METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted.
RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes.
CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits.
doi:10.5498/wjp.v6.i2.248
PMCID: PMC4919265  PMID: 27354968
Structural equations model; Personality traits; Stressful life events; Social support; Coping strategies; Depression and anxiety
4.  Masticatory ability with depression, anxiety, and stress: Does there exist any association? 
Dental Research Journal  2016;13(3):211-216.
Background:
Masticatory ability as a subjective response to masticatory function indicates patients’ perception of their mastication. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no study on association between masticatory ability and psychological status. This study investigated the association between self-assessed masticatory ability (SAMA) and psychological status among a large sample of Iranian adults.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, data were extracted from 4135 adults who had been completed information in 20 counties across Isfahan province regarding masticatory ability and psychological statuses (depression, anxiety, and stress). An SAMA questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire were used to measure masticatory ability, depression and anxiety, and stress of study population. To analyze the data, ANOVA, χ2 test, and multinomial regression were applied at 0.05 for the significance level.
Results:
Masticatory ability was significantly correlated with depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), and stress (P < 0.001). The participants in high masticatory ability group reported lower scores for presence of these psychological variables. Furthermore, males reported significantly higher level for masticatory ability than females (P = 0.025). In addition, there were significant association between low and moderate masticatory ability with anxiety (1.09, 1.08), depression (1.15, 1.13), and stress (1.11, 1.09), respectively. The association was still significant after adjusting for age, sex, educational level, and marital status.
Conclusion:
Despite study limitations, the results of this study provide evidence that participants with higher score of depression, anxiety, and stress suffer lower masticatory ability.
PMCID: PMC4878204  PMID: 27274340
Anxiety; depression; masticatory; psychology; stress
5.  Association of glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of metabolic syndrome in an Iranian population 
Background:
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are important factors in cell sensitivity to oxidative stress and susceptibility to cardiometabolic disorders. We aimed to investigate the GSTM1 and T1 gene polymorphisms, as well as their interactions in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and healthy individuals in an Iranian population.
Materials and Methods:
The study sample comprised of 220 healthy individuals (mean age: 41.9 – 15.1 years) and 165 MetS patients (mean age: 49.7 – 11.5 years). The diagnostic criteria for MetS were defined following the criteria provided by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Genotyping of GSTM1 and T1 genes were performed using polymerase chain reaction.
Results:
Our analyses have shown that neither GSTM1 (odds ratio [OR] =0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 – 1.33, P = 0.57) nor GSTT1 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.76 – 2.02, P = 0.38) null genotypes were associated with increased risk. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between various combinations of GST genotypes.
Conclusion:
Contrary to our primary hypothesis, what we found disaffirms any kind of association between GSTM1 and T1 polymorphisms and the risk of MetS. However, being the first polymorphism study of GSTs in MetS patients, further studies are required to confirm our results in other populations.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.179185
PMCID: PMC4832886  PMID: 27135032
Gene deletion; genetic polymorphism; glutathione transferase; metabolic syndrome X
6.  Effect of cardiac rehabilitation on metabolic syndrome and its components: A systematic review and meta-analysis 
Background:
Although the effect of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prognosis has been well-documented by several systematic reviews, none have focused on the effect of CR on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its related components. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of CR on MetS and its components.
Materials and Methods:
PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar database were searched up to February 2014 with no date and language restrictions. The random effects model was used to assess the overall effect of CR on MetS prevalence and the change in metabolic or anthropometric measures.
Results:
Fifteen studies with 19,324 subjects were included in the present systematic review and meta-analysis. Our analysis showed that the CR could significantly reduce MetS prevalence [reduction rate: 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 0.3, P value <0.001; P value for heterogeneity <0.001, I-squared: 86.2%]. Additionally, results showed the protective role of CR on all MetS components including high density lipoprotein cholesterol [mean difference (MD): 2.13 mg/dL, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.1], triglyceride (MD: -27.45 mg/dL, 95% CI: −36.92, −17.98), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (MD: −6.20 mmHg, 95% CI: -8.41, −3.99), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (MD: −2.53 mmHg, 95% CI: −3.64, −1.41), fasting blood sugar (FBS) (MD: −6.42 mg/dL, 95% CI: −6.85, −5.99), and waist circumference (WC) (MD: −2.25 cm, 95% CI: −3.15, −1.35).
Conclusion:
CR has resulted in improvement in MetS and its entire components, and could be considered as a useful tool for MetS patients, especially among those with CVD.
doi:10.4103/1735-1995.178757
PMCID: PMC5122180  PMID: 27904564
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR); meta-analysis; metabolic factors; syndrome x
7.  Policy makers’ viewpoints on implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Iran: A qualitative investigation of program facilitators 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2016;12(2):94-99.
BACKGROUND
The epidemic of smoking is a great concern of health systems. Moreover, the number of smokers is increasing worldwide and this has led to an escalating trend of morbidity, mortality, and burden of smoking-related diseases. Therefore, monitoring the implementation of tobacco control laws in different countries is of extreme importance. This study aimed to describe policy makers’ experiences and perceptions of the facilitating factors of the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in Iran.
METHODS
This was a qualitative research in which data were collected through individual interviews. The participants included policy makers who were members of the national assembly for tobacco control. In this study, 13 unstructured interviews of about 45 to 60 minutes duration were conducted in an extrapolative manner. The qualitative content analysis method was applied until extrapolation of basic themes was complete.
RESULTS
As a result of the analysis, the themes of performance through training, through research, through intersectoral collaboration, and through setting priorities emerged. The emerged themes connote some critical points that have key roles in promoting the effective implementation of the WHO FCTC. Furthermore, the main role of the health sector becomes predominant.
CONCLUSION
The study findings suggested the managed and coordinated work as one of the main facilitating factors of the implementation of the WHO FCTC at a national level.
PMCID: PMC4933748  PMID: 27429629
Tobacco; Policy Makers; Qualitative; WHO; FCTC; Iran
8.  Does the impact of metabolic syndrome on cardiovascular events vary by using different definitions? 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:1313.
Background
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder which increases the risk of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. As a result of modern lifestyles, the prevalence of MetS has been rising globally. This study aims to investigate whether overall prevalence of MetS varies when using different definitions of MetS and to identify the best and most predictive definition of the MetS for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events over 10 years in a cohort of an Iranian population.
Method
Adults aged ≥ 35 years from urban and rural regions in central Iran were selected at baseline and followed up for more than 10 years. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometry, blood pressure and smoking status were collected at baseline. In addition, various biochemical indices were assessed. MetS was defined based on five available definitions, and cardiovascular events during 10 years follow up were confirmed by an expert group. The hazard ratios were calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model.
Results
The highest prevalence of MetS was observed by using AHA-NHBI definition (36.9 %), followed by JIS definition (31.2 %). On the other hand, EGIR (8.8 %) provided the lowest prevalence. The risk of developing CVD, irrespective of definitions, was approximately two fold higher in the presence of MetS. After controlling for possible confounders, AHA-NHBI definition was found to be the best predictor of CVD.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated a great variability in the prevalence of MetS among Iranian adults when using different definitions of MetS. CVD risk was significantly higher in MetS participants, as well as in participants with any risk factors of MetS; however, the AHA-NHBI definition was found to be the best predictor of CVD. Thus protective measures, including lifestyle modifications, plus control of individual risk factors is necessary to prevent cardiovascular events.
doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2623-3
PMCID: PMC4696331  PMID: 26715355
Metabolic syndrome; Obesity; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cardiovascular diseases
9.  Better view on attitudes and perceived parental reactions behind waterpipe smoking among Iranian students 
Background:
Because of the increasing usage of waterpipe globally, we need to know more about the different factors related to waterpipe and cigarette smoking. Therefore, the present study aims at gaining more insight on waterpipe and cigarette smoking based on perceived parental reaction and appeal and repellent of smoking among adolescents.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional survey entitled “Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program” (ITUPP) was conducted among 5,500 adolescents in Isfahan Province, Iran in 2010 using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Demographic factors, cigarette and waterpipe smoking status, appeal and repellent of smoking, perceived parental reactions, and the main reasons behind the increase in waterpipe smoking were measured. Chi-square, univariate logistic regression, and multiple logistic regression were used. For all analyses, we defined statistical significance a priori with a two-tailed alpha of 0.05. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.
Results:
50% of the sample was female and 89% lived in urban areas. The average age of the respondents was 14.37 ± 1. 70 years. While a majority of cigarette smokers (70.9%) were waterpipe smokers, only 35.7% of waterpipe smokers smoked cigarettes. The incidence of smoking was high in those who expected less extensive parental reaction with odds ratio (OR) = 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.63] (P < 0.001) among cigarette smokers and OR = 2.75 (95% CI: 2.16-3.50) (P < 0.001) among waterpipe smokers. “Taste” was rated the most attractive feature by waterpipe and cigarette smokers 2.83-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 3.90) (P < 0.001). Most waterpipe smokers compared to nonsmokers believed that the main reason behind waterpipe popularity was habit.
Conclusion:
The factors related to waterpipe smoking were different from those in cigarette smoking; so we need to implement different interventions to overcome the surging usage of tobacco use.
doi:10.4103/1735-1995.172812
PMCID: PMC4755088  PMID: 26941805
Adolescents; attitude; Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); hookah; parent reaction; parents; perception; smoking; students; waterpipe
10.  Development and validation of cardiac patient competence questionnaire, Iranian version 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2015;11(4):220-227.
BACKGROUND
The aim was to translate and develop a patient competence (PC) questionnaire in the context of cardiology and test its validity and reliability.
METHODS
In total, 148 cardiac patients who have inclusion criteria of the study were completed cardiac PC (CPC) questionnaire. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and self-administered instrument European quality of life 5-dimensions were used to further validate the CPC questionnaire. The CPC was translated according to the recommended methodology for translating questionnaires, and psychometric properties including internal consistency, factor analysis, discriminant validity, construct validity, and concurrent criterion validity were tested.
RESULTS
Five domains in problem-focused task including search for information, self-regulation, being assertive, independent decision-making, and looking for social services, and three domains in emotion-focused task including stress management, confronting the threat, and avoidance were obtained by factor analysis. The standardized Cronbach’s α of all domains were statistically significant (P < 0.001) and internal consistency for all domains was acceptable. Significant intercorrelations of CPC domains also indicated good criterion validity. As there were no cross-loadings, the domains have demonstrated good construct validity and discriminant validity.
CONCLUSION
The results of this study show that the Persian version of the CPC is a reliable and valid questionnaire. Although further improvement of this measure is clearly required, it suggests being a potential basis for investigating the determinants and health effects of CPC.
PMCID: PMC4593657  PMID: 26478729
Patient Competence; Cardiology; Reliability and Validity
11.  Trends of 28 days case fatality rate after first acute myocardial infarction in Isfahan, Iran, from 2000 to 2009 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2015;11(4):233-243.
BACKGROUND
The purpose of the present study was the analysis of the trends in case fatality rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Isfahan, Iran. This analysis was performed based on gender, age groups, and type of AMI according to the International Classification of Diseases, version 10, during 2000-2009.
METHODS
Disregarding the Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA), this cohort study considered all AMI events registered between 2000 and 2009 in 13 hospitals in Isfahan. All patients were followed for 28 days. In order to assess the case fatality rate, the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and to compare survival rate, log-rank test were used. Using the Cox regression model, 28 days case fatality hazard ratio (HR) was calculated.
RESULTS
In total, 12,900 patients with first AMI were entered into the study. Among them, 9307 (72.10%) were men and 3593 (27.90%) women. The mean age in all patients increased from 61.36 ± 12.19 in 2000-2001 to 62.15 ± 12.74 in 2008-2009, (P = 0.0070); in women, from 65.38 ± 10.95 to 67.15 ± 11.72 (P = 0.0200), and in men, from 59.75 ± 12.29 to 59.84 ± 12.54 (P = 0.0170),. In addition, the 28 days case fatality rate in 2000-2009 had a steady descending trend. Thus, it decreased from 11.20% in 2000-2001 to 07.90% in 2008-2009; in men, from 09.20% to 06.70%, and in women, from 16.10% to 10.90%. During the study, HR of case fatality rate in 2000-2001 declined; therefore, in 2002-2003, it was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.77-1.11], in 2004-2005, 0.88 (95% CI = 0.73-1.04), in 2006-2007, 0.67 (95% CI = 0.56-0.82), and in 2008-2009, 0.69 (95% CI = 0.56-0.82).
CONCLUSION
In Isfahan, a reduction was observable in the trend of case fatality rate in both genders and all age groups. Thus, there was a 29.46% reduction in case fatality rate (27.17% in men, 32.29% in women) during the study period.
PMCID: PMC4593659  PMID: 26478731
Case Fatality Rate; Myocardial Infarction; Trend; Iran
12.  Synbiotic containing Bacillus coagulans and fructo-oligosaccharides for functional abdominal pain in children  
Aim: We evaluated the effectiveness of a synbiotic in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP).
Background: Probiotics are effective in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders in adult patients, but there is lack of information in children.
Patients and methods: Children with FAP, based on the Rome III criteria (n = 115, aged 6-18 years), were randomized to receive either synbiotic (Bacillus coagulans, Unique IS-2, 150 million spore plus FOS, 100 mg) twice daily or placebo for four weeks. Treatment response was defined as ≥ 2-point reduction in the 6-point self-rated pain scale or “no pain”. Physician-rated global severity and improvement were also evaluated. Patients were followed for a total of 12 weeks.
Results: Eighty-eight patients completed the trial (45 with synbiotic). Response rate was higher with synbiotic than placebo after medication (60% vs. 39.5%, P = 0.044), but was not different between the two groups at week 12 (64.4% vs. 53.4%, P = 0.204). Difference between the two groups regarding the physician-rated global severity over the study period was not statistically significant (z = -1.87, P = 0.062). There was no significant difference between the two groups in physician-rated global improvement (week 4, P = 0.437; week 12, P = 0.111). Receiving synbiotic (OR 2.608, 95% CI: 1.01-6.68) and baseline pain score (OR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.19-4.10) were predictors of treatment response after medication.
Conclusion: The synbiotic containing Bacillus coagulans and FOS seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP. Further trials are recommended in this regard.
PMCID: PMC4285933  PMID: 25584177
Abdominal pain; Child; Probiotic; Prebiotic; Synbiotic
13.  Evaluating factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension: Isfahan cohort study, Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(6):311-318.
BACKGROUND
Hypertension (HTN) considers as one of the most common risk factors, which potentially raises the risk of cardiovascular disease. Regarding high prevalence of HTN among Iranian population this study designed to examine a range of socio-demographic and clinical variables to determine the association with failure to achieve blood pressure control in a cohort of hypertensive subjects.
METHODS
This retrospective cohort study is a part of Isfahan cohort study which carried out on adults aged 35 years old or more. Subjects with confirmed HTN entered in this sub-study. For all subjects questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, clinical data and lifestyle behavior completed by trained nurses. Uncontrolled HTN was defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressure more than 140/90 in the presence or absent of pharmacological treatment.
RESULTS
The prevalence of uncontrolled men was significantly higher than controlled in both 2001 and 2007 (P < 0.001). A significant association was found between sex and control of blood pressure: compared with women, being men [odds ratio (OR) = 2.31; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.64-3.24] was significantly associated with uncontrolled HTN in 2001 and (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.78-3.18). Among lifestyle behaviors, tendency for more consumption of salty foods increased the risk of uncontrolled HTN in 2001 by 1.73 times [OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.20-2.50, (P = 0.003)]. Patients who were naive to mono-therapy without considering the type of antihypertensive drug were found to be associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (OR = 0.14; 95 % CI =0.1-0.2).
CONCLUSION
Uncontrolled HTN was sex, marital status, diabetes, tendency to salty foods and medication adherence. Assessment of them presence of these risk factors is warranted to recommend an aggressive HTN management with the goal of reducing excessive risk of cardiovascular events caused by uncontrolled HTN.
PMCID: PMC4354084  PMID: 25815021
Prevalence; Hypertension; Uncontrolled; Risk Factors
14.  A cross-sectional population-based study on the association of personality traits with anxiety and psychological stress: Joint modeling of mixed outcomes using shared random effects approach 
Background:
Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity) of anxiety (continuous) and Psychological stress (dichotomous) as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables.
Materials and Methods:
Data from 3180 participants who attended in the cross-sectional population-based “study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition” and completed self-administered questionnaires about demographic and life style, gastrointestinal disorders, personality traits, perceived intensity of stress, social support, and psychological outcome was analyzed using shared random effect approach in R Free software.
Results:
The results indicated high scores of neuroticism increase the chance of high psychological stress (odds ratio [OR] = 5.1; P < 0.001) and anxiety score (B = 1.73; P < 0.001) after adjustment for the probable confounders. In contrast, those who had higher scores of extraversion and conscientiousness experienced lower levels of anxiety score (B = −0.54 and −0.23, respectively, P < 0.001) and psychological stress (OR = 0.36 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.001). Furthermore, higher score of agreeableness had significant negative relationship with anxiety (B = −0.32, P < 0.001).
Conclusion:
The present study indicated that the scores of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness strongly predict both anxiety and psychological stress in Iranian adult population. Due to likely mechanism of genetic and environmental factors on the relationships between personality traits and psychological disorders, it is suggested to perform longitudinal studies focusing on both genetic and environmental factors in Iranian population.
PMCID: PMC4268191  PMID: 25535497
Anxiety; psychological stress; personality traits; shared random effect model; mixed outcomes
15.  Women health heart project: Methodology and effect of interventional strategies on low education participants 
Background:
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in women. Intervention programs aimed at improving the lifestyle can reduce the incidence of these diseases and their factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference of the interventions impact on CVD risk factors and the women's physical and biochemical indicators based on education levels.
Materials and Methods:
As part of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program after identifying the status of women over the age of 18 and over five years, a large educational or environmental intervention was performed in different methodologies and in order to improve the lifestyle. Some organizations such as health care centers and the Literacy Campaign Organization have cooperated for low educated women. Demographic data and risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes and serum lipids were investigated and compared during the first and last phase. Data were entered in SPSS-15 software and were analyzed by using T-test in two independent samples, Chi-square test and Fisher exact test.
Results:
Findings of this study showed that performing the five years interventions could reduce physical and biochemical indexes such as nutrition, lipid profile, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio in both groups (P < 0.005). In the pre-intervention phase, 6391 subjects and after the intervention 4786 women participated. After Interventions, women with higher educational levels were showed significant decrease in Body Mass Index (BMI) (P = 0.01) and dyslipidemia (P = 0.02).
Conclusion:
The present study showed that the community-based interventions even in low-literate women could cause effective changes on improving lifestyle and CVD risk factors. Due to the greater impact of interventions in literate women, effective interventions should be considered in the society to decrease the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs).
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.139693
PMCID: PMC4165102  PMID: 25250369
Education level; lifestyle modification; literacy movement; risk factors; women
16.  A Possible Role for Pioglitazone in the Management of Depressive Symptoms in Metabolic Syndrome Patients (EPICAMP Study): A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial  
The present trial aimed to evaluate the effects of pioglitazone on the mental status of nondiabetic metabolic syndrome patients. From 145 patients screened, 104 eligible volunteers (57% female; age 20–70 years) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either pioglitazone (uptitrated to 30 mg/day; P = 53) or matching placebo (P = 51) for 24 weeks. Depression and anxiety were quantified using the hospital anxiety and depression scale and stress level using the general health questionnaire 12 at baseline, week 12, and endpoint. Homeostasis model assessment was used to estimate insulin resistance. At week 24, pioglitazone was superior in mitigating depression score (P = 0.011). In trend analysis, the effect of time (P < 0.001) and group (P = 0.023) as well as the time by group interaction (P = 0.032) on the mean depression score was considerable. In contrast, significant decrements in anxiety and stress levels (P < 0.001 and P = 0.012, resp.) were comparable between two groups. With respect to our findings, alterations in depression severity were not correlated with changes in insulin resistance level (P = 0.145). In conclusion, our findings suggest that pioglitazone might be able to improve mood in nondiabetic insulin resistant patients. (Registered at Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; ACTRN12611000351910.)
doi:10.1155/2014/697617
PMCID: PMC4897538  PMID: 27433505
17.  Mebeverine for Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:191026.
We evaluated the effectiveness of an antispasmodic, mebeverine, in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP (n = 115, aged 6–18 years) received mebeverine (135 mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Response was defined as ≥2 point reduction in the 6-point pain scale or “no pain.” Physician-rated global severity was also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the trial (44 with mebeverine). Per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Treatment response rate in the mebeverine and placebo groups based on per-protocol [ITT] analysis was 54.5% [40.6%] and 39.5% [30.3%] at week 4 (P = 0.117 [0.469]) and 72.7% [54.2%] and 53.4% [41.0] at week 12, respectively (P = 0.0503 [0.416]). There was no significant difference between the two groups in change of the physician-rated global severity score after 4 weeks (P = 0.723) or after 12 weeks (P = 0.870) in per-protocol analysis; the same results were obtained in ITT analysis. Mebeverine seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP, but our study was not able to show its statistically significant effect over placebo. Further trials with larger sample of patients are warranted.
doi:10.1155/2014/191026
PMCID: PMC4095832  PMID: 25089264
18.  Health volunteers’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease prevention and healthy lifestyle following a community trial: Isfahan healthy heart program 
Background:
Health volunteers can have a great effect by training the population about prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lifestyle modification. This study evaluated the health volunteers’ knowledge following the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) that was performed between 2000 and 2006.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, 491 females were selected among health volunteers in the Isfahan and Najafabad districts as intervention areas and Arak as a reference area through 2000-2001 until 2006. They participated in training courses on CVD, its complications, methods of prevention of risk factors control as well healthy lifestyle promotion. The health volunteers’ level of knowledge was assessed before and after training.
Results:
Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the scores of health volunteers in the intervention and the control regions in terms of knowledge about recognizing the symptoms, complications and prevention of CVD and relevant risk factors and healthy lifestyle. However, their knowledge scores increased significantly in the fields of CVD (β = 0.13, P = 0.04), hypertension (β = 0.18, P = 0.009), healthy nutrition (β = 0.19, P = 0.007), appropriate physical activity (β = 0.17, P = 0.01) and dealing with stress (β = 0.16, P = 0.02) after trainings.
Conclusion:
The 6 year interventional program of IHHP showed that training health volunteers on prevention of CVD, their risk factors and modification of lifestyle continued to be effective even in a long time.
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.134761
PMCID: PMC4113989  PMID: 25077152
Cardiovascular diseases; health training; health volunteers
19.  Are obese adolescents more depressed? 
Introduction:
Obesity is a growing problem in all countries which leads to various physical, psychological, and social problems. The present study aimed to assess depression in children and adolescents aged 10-18-year old compared with the control group.
Materials and Methods:
In a case-control study, from among the 10- to 18-year-old students of the five education districts of Isfahan, 100 people (50 girls and 50 boys) were selected as obese children with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of greater than 95th percentile for their age and gender and 100 others (50 girls and 50 boys) as the control group with the BMI of 5th to 85th percentile. The case and control groups were matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status. After calculating BMI based on weight (kg)/height2 (meter), subjects were interviewed based on DSM IV criteria to diagnose clinical depression. The severity of children's depression was measured using standardized questionnaire.
Results:
The mean age of the case group was 12.2 ± 1.86-years old and that of the control group 13.06 ± 2.25. They were, respectively, diagnosed with depression of 7% and 6%. The mean depression score of the case group was 11.7 ± 5.3 and that of the control group was 10.6 ± 6.03 with no statistical significance.
Discussion:
Given our findings, the Jolly fat hypothesis applies to the case group. It seems that health policy-makers need to make intervention plans to change behavior; attitude, skill, and knowledge (BASK) of the public toward obesity and its long-term side-effects.
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.134908
PMCID: PMC4113990  PMID: 25077167
Adolescent; depression; obesity
20.  Do Iranian tobacco growers support the World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control? 
Context:
Studies on the World Health Organization Frame-work Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) are scarce in Iran and the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR).
Aim:
This study was conducted in 2007-2008 in Iran to design a practical evaluation model of the implementation of FCTC with the potential to be adopted in the EMR. Given that, the findings of this evaluation can be useful in increasing political and public support for enforcing the implementation of legislations, testing their feasibility, and maintaining sustainability. The viewpoints of tobacco growers as part of stakeholders in this regardwould have an influential role.
Settings and Design:
This study was a qualitative one to investigate the tobacco growers viewpoints about thestrengths/weaknesses of FCTC implementation in Iran.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, we conducted semi-structured in-depth individual interviews with 5 tobacco growers. All interviews were carried out with their permissionwere recorded and were assured that their interviews will be kept confidential. All questions were related to different FCTC articles, then written transcripts were prepared and the basic concepts were extrapolated.
Statistical Analysis:
After transcribing the recorded interviews, we extracted first level codes and main concepts from them.
Results:
The findings suggested that although tobacco growers agreed with FCTC implementation, however, subjects like the necessity to support tobacco growers and obtaining insurance from the government, the necessity of the enforcement of national tobacco control law and planning to decrease access to tobacco by policy makers were the most key points that tobacco growers pointed to them.
Conclusion:
Our results showed that tobacco growers agreed with the implementation of FCTC but they worried about their job and the expenses of their daily life. Therefore, it seems that policy makers have to design a plan to support tobacco growers for changing tobacco with a safe cultivate.
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.131904
PMCID: PMC4089143  PMID: 25013825
Frame-work convention on tobacco control; policy makers; tobacco growers
21.  Indicators Developed to Evaluate the International Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Iran; A Grounded Theory Study 
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences  2014;39(2 Suppl):213-217.
This study aimed to develop indicators for evaluating the implementation of The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Iran. We used the “grounded theory” framework. Totally, 265 policy-makers, stakeholders, and community members were recruited by purposeful sampling in 2008. After analyzing the gathered data, 251 indicators, including 82 indicators as “applied indicators”, were derived from second-level codes for three groups. A suitable evaluation questionnaire can be designed based on the extracted indicators for policy makers, stakeholders, and the community to follow the implementation of the FCTC in Iran.
PMCID: PMC3993040  PMID: 24753645
Program evaluation; Tobacco; Iran
22.  The sustainability of interventions of a community-based trial on children and adolescents’ healthy lifestyle 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(2):107-117.
BACKGROUND
Sustainability is the core of a successful health-related intervention program. This study was conducted to evaluate the sustainability of interventions of the Heart Health Promotion from Childhood (HHPC) project, one of the 10 interventional projects of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.
METHODS
The evaluation of HHPC included administrating surveys to 500 elementary and middle, and 500 high school students. The study participants were randomly selected from all schools in Isfahan. The questionnaires were administered by interviews to evaluate the sustainability of interventions.
RESULTS
The results of interviews showed that interventions were sustainable in 100% of elementary school, 99% of middle school, and 87% of high school students. Training of healthy lifestyle behaviors was significantly higher in all-girls middle schools (P < 0.001). Daily morning exercise was more frequent in girls high schools (P < 0.001), while selling unhealthy food was more frequent in boys high schools (P < 0.001). The participants attributed the success of the program mostly to students’ agreement and cooperation.
CONCLUSION
Even though 5 years have passed since the end of the HHPC project, many of the interventions have been continued at the schools, often because healthy behaviors have become institutionalized in the target population. However, now all schools have the same level of sustainability, especially the middle and high schools, and all-boys schools. Therefore, it is important for future projects to place additional emphasis on these institutions for future school-based interventions.
PMCID: PMC4144372  PMID: 25161679
Behavior; Community Health Planning; Institutionalization; Schools; Sustainability
23.  Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Psychological Distress 
Background. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and psychological distress are hypothesized to have a bidirectional relationship. According to their high prevalence in most populations, appraisal of this theory would be of great clinical and research interest. Methods. Data were available as part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). A total of 9553 men and women aged ≥19 years from three counties in central Iran were selected. Measurements consisted of serologic tests, anthropometrics, and self-reported 12-item general health questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the association between MetS, MetS components, and distress level. Results. The mean age of 9553 participants (50% male) was 38.7 ± 15.8 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.37), central obesity (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15–1.49), and hypertension (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.42–1.70) were associated with high distress level. However, after adding smoking status and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to the adjustment factors, hypertension (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.53–1.98) and central obesity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17–1.55), but not the MetS, remained significantly associated with distress level. Conclusion. The presence of association between the MetS as well as its key components and high distress level signifies the importance of integrating psychological assessment and intervention in the standard management of MetS patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/203463
PMCID: PMC3941148  PMID: 24672543
24.  Seasonal pattern in admissions and mortality from acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients in Isfahan, Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(1):46-54.
BACKGROUND
Seasonal variation in admissions and mortality due to acute myocardial infarction has been observed in different countries. Since there are scarce reports about this variation in Iran, this study was carried out to determine the existence of seasonal rhythms in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction, and in mortality due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in elderly patients in Isfahan city.
METHODS
This prospective hospital-based study included a total of 3990 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 13 hospitals from January 2002 to December 2007. Seasonal variations were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier table, log rank test, and Cox regression model.
RESULTS
There was a statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of heart disease based on season and type of acute myocardial infarction anatomical (P < 0.001). The relationship between the occurrence of death and season and type of AMI according to International Classification of Diseases code 10 (ICD) was also observed and it was statistically significant (P = 0.026). Hazard ratio for death from acute myocardial infarction were 0.96 [Confidence interval of 95% (95% CI) = 0.78-1.18], 0.9 (95%CI = 0.73-1.11), and 1.04 (95%CI = 0.85-1.26) during spring, summer, and winter, respectively.
CONCLUSION
There is seasonal variation in hospital admission and mortality due to AMI; however, after adjusting in the model only gender and age were significant predictor factors.
PMCID: PMC4063513  PMID: 24963314
Acute Myocardial Infarction; Season; Admission in Hospital; Mortality; Isfahan
25.  The Impacts of Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on Echocardiographic Parameters in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction 
Introduction. The accurate impact of exercise on coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with left ventricular dysfunction is still debatable. We studied the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on echocardiography parameters in CAD patients with ventricular dysfunction. Methods. Patients with CAD who had ventricular dysfunction were included into an exercise-based rehabilitation program and received rehabilitation for eight weeks. All subjects underwent echocardiography before and at the end of the rehabilitation program. The echocardiography parameters, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), LV end-diastolic (LVEDD) and end-systolic diameters (LVESD), and peak exercise capacity measured in metabolic equivalents (METs), were assessed. Results. Seventy patients (mean age = 57.5 ± 10.2 years, 77.1% males) were included into the study. At the end of rehabilitation period, the LVEF increased from 45.14 ± 5.77% to 50.44 ± 8.70% (P < 0.001), and the peak exercise capacity increased from 8.00 ± 2.56 to 10.08 ± 3.00 METs (P < 0.001). There was no significant change in LVEDD (54.63 ± 12.96 to 53.86 ± 8.95 mm, P = 0.529) or in LVESD (38.91 ± 10.83 to 38.09 ± 9.04 mm, P = 0.378) after rehabilitation. Conclusion. Exercise training in postmyocardial infarction patients with ventricular dysfunction could have beneficial effects on cardiac function without adversely affecting LV remodeling or causing serious cardiac complications.
doi:10.1155/2013/201713
PMCID: PMC3891233  PMID: 24459599

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