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1.  Methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program: First Phase 
Background. Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable death. The majority of smokers begin using tobacco products at teen ages. The aims of this study were providing a methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program and investigating the prevalence of tobacco use and its related factors. Method. It was a cross-sectional study among guidance and high school students in Isfahan province. Initiation, social, psychological (depression and self-efficacy), family, and attitudinal and belief factors and school policy toward smoking (cigarettes and water-pipe) were investigated. Saliva qutinin was given from 5% of participants for determination of accuracy of responses. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used for gathering all data. Results. Of all 5500 questionnaires distributed, about 5408 completed questionnaires were returned (with response rate of 98.3%). Of all participants, 2702 (50.0%) were girls and 2706 (50.0%) were boys. Respectively, 4811 (89.0%) and 597 (11.0%) were from urban and rural. Of all participants, 2445 (45.2%) were guidance school and 2962 (54.8%) were high school students. Conclusion. This study will provide a unique opportunity to study prevalence of smoking cigarettes and water-pipe (ghelyan) among guidance and high school students in Isfahan province and determine the role of initiation, social, psychological, family, and attitudinal and belief factors and school policy toward smoking.
doi:10.1155/2013/182170
PMCID: PMC3870653  PMID: 24383007
2.  Relationship between depression and apolipoproteins A and B: a case–control study 
Clinics  2011;66(1):113-117.
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the relation between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease.
INTRODUCTION:
Little evidence is available indicating a relationship between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease such as lipoprotein and apolipoprotein.
METHODS:
This case–control study included 153 patients with major depressive disorder who fulfilled the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM‐IV), and 147 healthy individuals. All participants completed a demographic questionnaire and Hamilton rating scale for depression. Anthropometric characteristics were recorded. Blood samples were taken and total cholesterol, high‐ and low‐density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A and B were measured. To analyze the data, t‐test, χ2 test, Pearson correlation test and linear regression were applied.
RESULTS:
Depression was a negative predictor of apolipoprotein A (β = −0.328, p<0.01) and positive predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.290, p<0.05). Apolipoprotein A was inversely predicted by total cholesterol (β = −0.269, p<0.05) and positively predicted by high‐density lipoprotein (β = 0.401, p<0.01). Also, low‐density lipoprotein was a predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.340, p<0.01). The severity of depression was correlated with the increment in serum apolipoprotein B levels and the decrement in serum apolipoprotein A level.
CONCLUSION:
In view of the relationship between apolipoproteins A and B and depression, it would seem that screening of these metabolic risk factors besides psychological interventions is necessary in depressed patients.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322011000100020
PMCID: PMC3044579  PMID: 21437446
Coronary risk factors; Coronary heart disease; Major depression

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