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1.  The Role of External and Matrix pH in Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Generation* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2008;283(43):29292-29300.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria as a side product of electron and proton transport through the inner membrane is important for normal cell operation as well as development of pathology. Matrix and cytosol alkalization stabilizes semiquinone radical, a potential superoxide producer, and we hypothesized that proton deficiency under the excess of electron donors enhances reactive oxygen species generation. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pH dependence of reactive oxygen species released by mitochondria. The experiments were performed in the media with pH varying from 6 to 8 in the presence of complex II substrate succinate or under more physiological conditions with complex I substrates glutamate and malate. Matrix pH was manipulated by inorganic phosphate, nigericine, and low concentrations of uncoupler or valinomycin. We found that high pH strongly increased the rate of free radical generation in all of the conditions studied, even when ΔpH = 0 in the presence of nigericin. In the absence of inorganic phosphate, when the matrix was the most alkaline, pH shift in the medium above 7 induced permeability transition accompanied by the decrease of ROS production. ROS production increase induced by the alkalization of medium was observed with intact respiring mitochondria as well as in the presence of complex I inhibitor rotenone, which enhanced reactive oxygen species release. The phenomena revealed in this report are important for understanding mechanisms governing mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, in particular that related with uncoupling proteins.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M801019200
PMCID: PMC2570889  PMID: 18687689

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