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1.  Effect of hyperthyroidism on bronchial reactivity in non-asthmatic patients. 
Thorax  1989;44(7):603-604.
Thyrotoxicosis may be associated with deterioration in asthma. To determine whether bronchial reactivity to histamine is increased in hyperthyroidism 10 thyrotoxic non-asthmatic patients were assessed before and after treatment of their thyrotoxicosis. No significant change in bronchial reactivity was found after treatment.
PMCID: PMC461977  PMID: 2772862
2.  Upstream regulatory sequences of the yeast RNR2 gene include a repression sequence and an activation site that binds the RAP1 protein. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1989;9(12):5359-5372.
The small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (RNR2) was induced 3- to 20-fold by a variety of DNA-damaging agents. Induction of the RNR2 transcript by at least one of these agents, methyl methanesulfonate, did not require protein synthesis. To identify sequences involved in the regulation of RNR2, we introduced deletions upstream of the transcription start site. Sequences required for induction were contained within a 200-base-pair region that could confer methyl methanesulfonate inducibility on the heterologous CYC1 promoter. This region contained a repression sequence and at least two positive activation sites. One of these activation sites bound RAP1, a protein known to associate with mating-type silencers and the upstream activation sequences of a number of genes. The behavior of deletions of the repression sequence suggests that induction of RNR2 may occur, at least in part, through relief of repression.
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PMCID: PMC363704  PMID: 2685560
3.  Preservation of myocardial ultrastructure after 24 hours of Klebsiella sepsis: histologic, functional, and biochemical correlations. 
Myocardial function with ultrastructure and high energy phosphate levels in dogs was correlated after 24 hours of sepsis using live Klebsiella aerogenes. All animals developed progressive hemodynamic deterioration over a 24 hour period. Mean arterial pressure decreased from 148 +/- 7 mmHg to 85 (P less than 0.01) and cardiac output decreased from 3.43 +/- .31 to 1.6 +/- 0.5 L/min. Left ventricular stroke work decreased from 48.2 +/- 5 to 18.1 +/- 6 gm-meters (P less than 0.001). Systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances were increased at 24 hours (3,538 +/- 27 to 7,404 +/- 1,400 dyne/sec/cm-5 (P less than 0.01), and 185 +/- 20 and 619 +/- 90 dyne/sec/cm-5 (P less than 0.001), respectively. Left ventricular function curves at 24 hours showed a fixed low output. However, myocardial ultrastructure was preserved and high energy phosphate levels remained normal. These observations correlate well with the changes seen clinically in early gram negative sepsis in hypovolemic patients. Thus, this appears to be a suitable model for further investigation of the effects of gram negative sepsis on myocardial performance, ultrastructure, and maintenance of energy stores.
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PMCID: PMC2571569  PMID: 2681798
4.  Human immunodeficiency virus in drug misusers and increased consultation in general practice. 
The use of general practitioner services by a group of intravenous drug users was recorded over two two-year time periods 1984-85 and 1986-87. This was felt to represent the period of maximum change in awareness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by patients and medical staff. Fifty patients were randomly selected: 25 who were HIV positive and 25 who were HIV negative. Between the two time periods a dramatic increase in consultation rate for both high risk and infected patients attending their general practitioner was recorded (318% and 172% increase, respectively). A small increase in attendance at the accident and emergency department (30% and 34% increase, respectively) was recorded for high risk and infected patients, and there was a large increase in attendance at the infectious diseases unit for infected patients but there was little effect on use of other hospital services. The implications for resource needs in the community are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1711873  PMID: 2558188
6.  Economic impact of a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis: cost-benefit of early intervention. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1989;298(6682):1227-1230.
The recognition and investigation of an outbreak of food poisoning in 1982 due to chocolate contaminated with Salmonella napoli enabled the food that carried the salmonella to be identified and four fifths of the implicated consignment of chocolate to be withdrawn. The economic benefits of prompt intervention in the outbreak have been assessed. The cost of the outbreak was over 0.5 pounds m. It is estimated that five deaths were prevented by the intervention and that 185 admissions to hospital and 29,000 cases of S napoli enteritis were avoided. This successful investigation yielded a 3.5-fold rate of return to the public sector and a 23.3-fold return to society on an investment in public health surveillance. A methodology is described that can be used to estimate the benefits of early intervention in outbreaks of foodborne illness and topics for further research are suggested. It is concluded that public health authorities and industry have much to gain by collaborating in the research into the design of cost effective programmes to prevent foodborne infections.
PMCID: PMC1836236  PMID: 2502224
7.  Severe delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions to amoxicillin in children. 
Amoxicillin, a semisynthetic aminopenicillin, has achieved widespread use in recent years for the treatment of respiratory tract and otic infections. Serious reactions have been relatively infrequent. From July 1986 to June 1987, 11 children aged 6 months to 10 years presented with delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions. In 10 the symptoms were consistent with a serum-sickness-like illness, including urticaria, angioedema, arthritis and arthralgia. Radioallergosorbent testing for IgE antibodies to penicillin yielded negative results, and lymphocyte transformation testing gave a positive result in only one patient. Because of the negative immunologic test results and the occurrence of reactions only in children, who had received an amoxicillin solution, the reactions may have been caused by the excipient.
PMCID: PMC1268893  PMID: 2467730
8.  Ammonia assimilation pathways in nitrogen-fixing Clostridium kluyverii and Clostridium butyricum. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1989;171(4):2148-2154.
Pathways of ammonia assimilation into glutamic acid were investigated in ammonia-grown and N2-fixing Clostridium kluyverii and Clostridium butyricum by measuring the specific activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase. C. kluyverii had NADPH-glutamate dehydrogenase with a Km of 12.0 mM for NH4+. The glutamate dehydrogenase pathway played an important role in ammonia assimilation in ammonia-grown cells but was found to play a minor role relative to that of the glutamine synthetase/NADPH-glutamate synthase pathway in nitrogen-fixing cells when the intracellular NH4+ concentration and the low affinity of the enzyme for NH4+ were taken into account. In C. butyricum grown on glucose-salt medium with ammonia or N2 as the nitrogen source, glutamate dehydrogenase activity was undetectable, and the glutamine synthetase/NADH-glutamate synthase pathway was the predominant pathway of ammonia assimilation. Under these growth conditions, C. butyricum also lacked the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the regeneration of NADPH from NADP+. However, high activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase as well as of NADPH-glutamate dehydrogenase with a Km of 2.8 mM for NH4+ were present in C. butyricum after growth on complex nitrogen and carbon sources. The ammonia-assimilating pathway of N2-fixing C. butyricum, which differs from that of the previously studied Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus macerans, is discussed in relation to possible effects of the availability of ATP and of NADPH on ammonia-assimilating pathways.
PMCID: PMC209870  PMID: 2564848
9.  Fidelity of two retroviral reverse transcriptases during DNA-dependent DNA synthesis in vitro. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1989;9(2):469-476.
We determined the fidelity of avian myeloblastosis virus and Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptases (RTs) during DNA synthesis in vitro using the M13mp2 lacZ alpha gene as a mutational target. Both RTs commit an error approximately once for every 30,000 nucleotides polymerized. DNA sequence analysis of mutants generated in a forward mutation assay capable of detecting many types of errors demonstrated that avian myeloblastosis virus RT produced a variety of different mutations. The majority (58%) were single-base substitutions; all of which resulted from the misincorporation of either dAMP or dGMP. Minus-one frameshifts were also common, composing about 30% of the mutations. In addition to single-base events, eight mutants contained sequence changes involving from 2 to 59 bases. The frequency of these mutants suggests that, at least during DNA synthesis in vitro, RTs also commit errors by mechanisms other than classical base miscoding and misalignment. We examined the ability of RTs to synthesize DNA from a mismatched primer terminus at a sequence where the mismatched base was complementary to the next base in the template. Unlike cellular DNA polymerases which polymerize from the mismatched template-primer, RTs preferred to polymerize from a rearranged template-primer containing a matched terminal base pair and an unpaired base in the template strand. The unusual preference for this substrate suggests that the interactions between RTs and the template-primer are different from those of cellular DNA polymerases. The overall error rate of RT in vitro is sufficient to account for the estimated mutation rate of these viruses.
PMCID: PMC362622  PMID: 2469002
10.  Interaction of novel bis(platinum) complexes with DNA. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1989;17(23):9719-9733.
Bis(platinum) complexes [[cis-PtCl2(NH3)]2H2N(CH2)nNH2] are a novel series of potential anticancer agents in which two cis-diamine(platinum) groups are linked by an alkyldiamine of variable length. These complexes are potentially tetrafunctional, a unique feature in comparison with known anticancer agents. Studies of DNA interactions of bis(platinum) complexes in comparison with cisplatin demonstrate significant differences. Investigations of interstrand crosslink formation in which crosslinking of a short DNA fragment is detected by gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions demonstrate that interstrand crosslinks are 250 fold more frequent among bis(platinum) adducts than among cisplatin-derived adducts under the conditions examined. These investigations indicate that bis(platinum) adducts contain a high frequency of structurally novel interstrand crosslinks formed through binding of the two platinum centers to opposite DNA strands. Unlike cisplatin, bis(platinum) complex binding does not unwind supercoiled DNA. Studies with the E. coli UvrABC nuclease complex demonstrate that both linear and supercoiled DNA containing bis(platinum) adducts are subject to incision by the repair enzyme complex. Initial studies using UvrABC nuclease as a probe to define the base and sequence specificity for bis(platinum) complex binding suggest that the specificity of the bis(platinum)s is similar, but not identical, to that of cisplatin.
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PMCID: PMC335209  PMID: 2690006

Results 1-10 (10)