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1.  The social and economic impact of salmonellosis. A report of a national survey in England and Wales of laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1991;107(2):335-347.
This study presents the findings of a national survey of 1482 cases of salmonellosis reported to Environmental Health Departments in England and Wales between August 1988 and March 1989. A questionnaire survey of ill individuals and the environmental health officers who investigated them sought information about costs which were imposed upon public health authorities, the health sector, individuals and their families and the costs to the wider economy in terms of lost production. Costs of 996,339 pounds were identified. Over half (507,555 pounds) resulted from lost production due to sickness absence and more than a third (392,822 pounds) were costs to the public sector which resulted from health care and local authority investigation of cases. The remaining costs (95,962 pounds), although the smallest proportion of the total, indicated that salmonellosis can have a significant impact on affected individuals and their families.
PMCID: PMC2272060  PMID: 1936155
3.  Attenuation of antibody response to acute pyelonephritis by treatment with antibiotics. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1991;35(11):2340-2344.
While acute pyelonephritis is known to elicit an antibody response, it is also known that a patient who has had pyelonephritis once is susceptible to recurrent renal infection. Using our experimental model of pyelonephritis in the monkey, we tested whether antibiotic therapy of the acute disease would affect the antibody response. We found that it did, because antibiotic therapy beginning 72 h after bacterial inoculation attenuated the antibody response so that rechallenge 3 months later produced acute pyelonephritis and prolonged bacteriuria. The animals with untreated infection had an antibody response that lasted a sufficient period of time to prevent acute pyelonephritis after renal challenge. We have confirmed that antibody titers against P fimbriae are protective, and to a degree, this protective effect may be abrogated by antibiotic therapy.
PMCID: PMC245382  PMID: 1804007
4.  Constitutive and UV-mediated activation of RecA protein: combined effects of recA441 and recF143 mutations and of addition of nucleosides and adenine. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(18):5869-5875.
The recF143 mutant of Escherichia coli is deficient in certain functions that also require the RecA protein: cell survival after DNA damage, some pathways of genetic recombination, and induction of SOS genes and temperate bacteriophage through cleavage of the LexA and phage repressors. To characterize the role of RecF in SOS induction and RecA activation, we determined the effects of the recF143 mutation on the rate of RecA-promoted cleavage of LexA, the repressor of the SOS genes. We show that RecA activation following UV irradiation is delayed by recF143 and that RecF is specifically involved in the SOS induction pathway that requires DNA replication. At 32 degrees C, the recA441 mutation partially suppresses the defect of recF mutants in inducing the SOS system in response to UV irradiation (A. Thomas and R. G. Lloyd, J. Gen. Microbiol. 129:681-686, 1983; M. R. Volkert, L. J. Margossian, and A. J. Clark, J. Bacteriol. 160:702-705, 1984); we find that this suppression occurs at the earliest detectable phase of LexA cleavage and does not require protein synthesis. Our results support the idea that following UV irradiation, RecF enhances the activation of RecA into a form that promotes LexA cleavage (A. Thomas and R. G. Lloyd, J. Gen. Microbiol. 129:681-686, 1983; M. V. V. S. Madiraju, A. Templin, and A. J. Clark, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:6592-6596, 1988). In contrast to the constitutive activation phenotype of the recA441 mutant, the recA441-mediated suppression of recF is not affected by adenine and nucleosides. We also find that wild-type RecA protein is somewhat activated by adenine in the absence of DNA damage.
PMCID: PMC208321  PMID: 1715863
5.  Characterization of the late-gene regulatory region of phage 21. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(4):1554-1560.
A segment of Escherichia coli bacteriophage 21 DNA encoding the late-gene regulator, Q21, and the late-gene leader RNA segment was sequenced; its structure is similar to those of the related phages lambda and 82. The leader RNA is about 45 nucleotides long and consists essentially entirely of sequences encoding the p-independent terminator that is the putative target of the antitermination activity of Q21. Like the corresponding regions of lambda and 82, the 21 late-gene promoter segment encodes an early transcription pause in vitro, at about nucleotide 18, during which Q21 presumably acts to modify RNA polymerase. The 21 Q gene, cloned in isolation, is active on the late-gene leader segment in trans, and its purified product is active as an antiterminator in vitro; Q21 represents a third late-gene antiterminator, in addition to those of lambda and 82. There is little evident similarity in the primary sequences of the three Q genes.
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PMCID: PMC207295  PMID: 1704887
6.  Junior doctors' years: training, not education. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;302(6770):225-228.
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PMCID: PMC1669052  PMID: 1998767
7.  A medical malaise in hospital. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;302(6769):163-166.
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PMCID: PMC1668840  PMID: 1995138
10.  The NHS observed. Navigating the seas of change. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;302(6767):34-37.
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PMCID: PMC1668769  PMID: 1991186

Results 1-10 (10)