PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-6 (6)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
2.  Prospective care of elderly patients in family practice. Is screening effective? 
Canadian Family Physician  1998;44:2677-2687.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cost and benefits of screening for and treating health and lifestyle risks among community-dwelling elderly. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: An opportunistic and prompted sample of 619 rostered elderly patients presenting for treatment who screened positive. INTERVENTIONS: One third (209) of experimental subjects had screening questionnaires placed in their charts with concerns highlighted for referrals. Two control groups received usual care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly assessments of health service use and multidimensional functional capacity. RESULTS: Overall, screening and treatment of functionally active, elderly, middle-class people had no significant beneficial effect. Almost half of the experimental sample was ineligible because of treatment noncompliance. Generally ineligible subjects were older and more severely impaired. Subjects 75 years and older with risk factors showed improvement in daily living activities, and those living alone were found to have improved mental health and social functions (11% and 22%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Screening and treatment was ineffective in improving total functional capacity of all seniors 65 years and older. Elderly people 75 years and older, however, who were living alone or lonely did benefit from screening and treatment showing an improvement in daily activities, mental health scores, and social functions. This finding has implications for selective preventive health care spending for the elderly. A 2-year follow-up period could be too brief to detect long-term effects of early intervention with younger, middle-class seniors, especially those who are already functionally active.
PMCID: PMC2277795  PMID: 9870121
3.  A randomized trial comparing methotrexate and vinblastine (MV) with cisplatin, methotrexate and vinblastine (CMV) in advanced transitional cell carcinoma: results and a report on prognostic factors in a Medical Research Council study. MRC Advanced Bladder Cancer Working Party. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;78(8):1067-1075.
Transitional cell carcinomas may arise at any site within the urinary tract and are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality. In particular, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis, with less than 5% alive at 5 years. A multicentre randomized trial comparing methotrexate and vinblastine (MV) with cisplatin, methotrexate and vinblastine (CMV) in advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma was conducted in the UK. From April 1991 to June 1995, 214 patients were entered by 16 centres, 108 randomized to CMV and 106 to MV. A total of 204 patients have died. The hazard ratio (relative risk of dying) was 0.68 (95% CI 0.51-0.90, P-value = 0.0065) in favour of CMV. This translates to an absolute improvement in 1-year survival of 13%, 16% in MV and 29% in CMV. The median survival for CMV and MV was 7 months and 4.5 months respectively. Two hundred and eight patients objectively progressed or died. The hazard ratio was 0.55 (95% CI 0.41-0.73, P-value = 0.0001) in favour of CMV. Two hundred and nine patients symptomatically progressed or died. The hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% CI 0.36-0.64, P-value = 0.0001) in favour of CMV. The most important pretreatment factors influencing overall survival were WHO performance status and extent of disease. These two factors were used to derive a prognostic index which could be used to categorize patients into three prognostic groups. We conclude that the addition of cisplatin to methotrexate and vinblastine should be considered in patients with transitional cell carcinoma, taking into account the increased toxicity.
PMCID: PMC2063167  PMID: 9792152
4.  Evaluation of a sexual abuse prevention program for adults with mental retardation. 
Programs to teach sexual abuse prevention skills to persons with mental retardation have rarely been evaluated empirically, and typical evaluations are limited to assessment of the participants' knowledge rather than their performance of specific skills. In the present study, 6 adult women with mental retardation were trained in sexual abuse prevention, and performance was assessed using four separate measures: pretests and posttests of knowledge, verbal report, role play, and naturalistic probes. All women learned the skills but failed to exhibit them to criterion during the probes. We discuss the implications for further training and assessment of sexual abuse prevention skills.
doi:10.1901/jaba.1998.31-91
PMCID: PMC1284101  PMID: 9532753
5.  Surviving social assistance: 12-month prevalence of depression in sole-support parents receiving social assistance 
BACKGROUND: Although it is generally recognized that poverty and depression can coexist among single parents receiving social assistance, there is insufficient research on this topic. The goals of this study therefore were to investigate the prevalence, correlates and health care expenditures associated with depression among sole-support parents receiving social assistance. METHODS: Sole-support parents who had applied for social assistance in 2 regions of southwestern Ontario were included in the study. Depression was diagnosed with the 1994 University of Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview short forms. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence rate of depressive disorder among the parents interviewed was 45.4% (345/760). A total of 247 (32.5%) had major depressive disorder alone, 19 (2.5%) had dysthymia, and 79 (10.4%) had both major depressive disorder and dysthymia ("double depression"). Those with major depressive disorder, particularly double depression, had significantly higher rates of coexisting psychiatric disorder than those without depressive disorders. Parents with depression reported higher rates of developmental delay and behaviour problems in their children than parents without depression. Expenditures for health care services were higher for parents with depression and for their children than for parents without depressive disorder and their children. INTERPRETATION: Single parents receiving social assistance have high rates of depression. Such parents with depression also have higher rates of other psychiatric disorders and higher expenditures for health care services, and their children have higher rates of developmental delay and behaviour problems.
PMCID: PMC1229183  PMID: 9559013

Results 1-6 (6)