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1.  Effect of stretching duration on active and passive range of motion in the lower extremity 
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of different durations of stretching (five or 15 seconds) on active and passive range of motion (ROM) in the lower extremity during a five week flexibility training programme. METHOD: Twenty four university sport club members (19 men, five women), with a mean (SD) age of 20.5 (1.35) years, were randomly assigned to one of three groups (two treatment and one control). The two treatment groups participated in a static active stretching programme three times a week for a five week period, holding each stretch for a duration of either five or 15 seconds. The total amount of time spent in a stretched position was controlled. The five second group performed each stretch nine times and the 15 second group three times resulting in a total stretching time of 45 seconds for both groups for each exercise. The control group did not stretch. Active and passive ROM were determined during left hip flexion, left knee flexion, and left knee extension before and after the training programme using an inclinometer. RESULTS: Two factor within subject analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in ROM before and after the training programme for the control group. However, significant improvements in active and passive ROM (p < 0.05) were shown in both treatment groups after the five week training programme. Two factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and post hoc analysis showed significant differences between the treatment groups and the control group for the improvements observed in active (p < 0.05) and passive (p < 0.05) ROM. The five and 15 second treatment groups did not differ from one another when ROM was assessed passively, but significant differences were apparent for active ROM, with the 15 second group showing significantly greater improvements (p < 0.05) than the five second group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that holding stretches for 15 seconds, as opposed to five seconds, may result in greater improvements in active ROM. However, sustaining a stretch may not significantly affect the improvements gained in passive ROM. 



PMCID: PMC1756178  PMID: 10450481
2.  Simultaneous mating with multiple males reduces fertilization success in the myobatrachid frog Crinia georgiana 
Approximately 50% of matings in the frog Crinia georgiana involve two or more males. We report reduced fertilization success as a major cost of mating with multiple males. For single-male matings, fertilization success was consistently high averaging 96%. Only 68% of eggs were fertilized when females were amplexed by two males and this dropped to 64% when females were amplexed by three to five males. Multiple regression analysis revealed the reduction in fertilization success was significantly related to the number of amplectant males but not to clutch size or three measures of water quality (depth, temperature and oxygen concentration) at the site of oviposition. The most likely cause of reduced fertilization success is struggles amongst males which interfere with effective sperm transfer.
doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0695
PMCID: PMC1689823
3.  Chronic pain--what a pain. 
Western Journal of Medicine  1999;171(1):64.
PMCID: PMC1305749  PMID: 10483354
4.  Training and generalization of sexual abuse prevention skills for women with mental retardation. 
Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training to teach sexual abuse prevention skills to women with mental retardation results in skill acquisition but poor generalization. In this investigation we evaluated procedures for enhancing generalization following training. Five women with mental retardation received 10 behavioral skills training sessions followed by in situ training when the skills did not fully generalize. Behavioral skills training resulted in skill acquisition and in situ training produced generalized responding during naturalistic assessments.
doi:10.1901/jaba.1999.32-385
PMCID: PMC1284200  PMID: 10513032

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