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1.  A trial of early discharge with homecare compared to conventional hospital care for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting 
Heart  2004;90(11):1344-1345.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.024323
PMCID: PMC1768555  PMID: 15486143
early discharge; coronary artery bypass grafting; length of stay; costs; quality of life
3.  Isolation measures in the hospital management of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): systematic review of the literature 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2004;329(7465):533.
Objective To evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of isolation measures in reducing the incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation and infection in hospital inpatients.
Design Systematic review of published articles.
Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE), and citation lists (1966-2000).
Review methods Articles reporting MRSA related outcomes and describing an isolation policy were selected. No quality restrictions were imposed on studies using isolation wards or nurse cohorting. Other studies were included if they were prospective or employed planned comparisons of retrospective data.
Results 46 studies were accepted; 18 used isolation wards, nine used nurse cohorting, and 19 used other isolation policies. Most were interrupted time series, with few planned formal prospective studies. All but one reported multiple interventions. Consideration of potential confounders, measures to prevent bias, and appropriate statistical analysis were mostly lacking. No conclusions could be drawn in a third of studies. Most others provided evidence consistent with a reduction of MRSA acquisition. Six long interrupted time series provided the strongest evidence. Four of these provided evidence that intensive control measures including patient isolation were effective in controlling MRSA. In two others, isolation wards failed to prevent endemic MRSA.
Conclusion Major methodological weaknesses and inadequate reporting in published research mean that many plausible alternative explanations for reductions in MRSA acquisition associated with interventions cannot be excluded. No well designed studies exist that allow the role of isolation measures alone to be assessed. None the less, there is evidence that concerted efforts that include isolation can reduce MRSA even in endemic settings. Current isolation measures recommended in national guidelines should continue to be applied until further research establishes otherwise.
PMCID: PMC516101  PMID: 15345626
4.  An Approach to Improving Science Knowledge About Energy Balance and Nutrition Among Elementary- and Middle-School Students 
Cell Biology Education  2004;3(2):122-130.
Unhealthy diets, lack of fitness, and obesity are serious problems in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control, Surgeon General, and Department of Health and Human Services are calling for action to address these problems. Scientists and educators at Baylor College of Medicine and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute teamed to produce an instructional unit, “Food and Fitness,” and evaluated it with students in grades 3–7 in Houston, Texas. A field-test group (447 students) completed all unit activities under the guidance of their teachers. This group and a comparison group (343 students) completed pre and postassessments measuring knowledge of concepts covered in the unit. Outcomes indicate that the unit significantly increased students' knowledge and awareness of science concepts related to energy in living systems, metabolism, nutrients, and diet. Pre-assessment results suggest that most students understand concepts related to calories in food, exercise and energy use, and matching food intake to energy use. Students' prior knowledge was found to be much lower on topics related to healthy portion sizes, foods that supply the most energy, essential nutrients, what “diet” actually means, and the relationship between body size and basal metabolic rate.
doi:10.1187/cbe.03-08-0008
PMCID: PMC437639  PMID: 15257340
energy balance; nutrition; elementary-school students; middle-school students; science knowledge

Results 1-4 (4)