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1.  Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale: an assessment tool for problem drinking. 
Alcoholism has been studied in adults and found to share obsessive-compulsive characteristics. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOC) was used to quantify the measurements of this disorder. This study adapted the YBOC for use with adolescents/young adults in an attempt to measure the "craving" expressed as obsessive and compulsive phenomenon. The primary findings show that the obsessive compulsive dimensions of alcohol cravings, as described in adult populations, also exist in adolescent/young adults. The Adolescent Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (A-OCDS) was developed utilizing idioms and language typical for the 17-20 age group. Various quantitative evaluations proved that the Interference and Irresistibility sub-scales were the primary dimensions causing the obsessive behavior. This study begins to address this aspect of adolescent substance abuse utilizing a tool that is easy to administer. Because of the ease of use, although not a diagnostic instrument, the A-OCDS may be useful for identifying problem drinking in adolescents as well as detecting impairment in function related to drinking.
PMCID: PMC2593946  PMID: 12656441
2.  Tetanus in a parenteral drug abuser: report of a case. 
Tetanus is an infection caused by Clostridium tetani. In the United States, tetanus remains a significant problem primarily among nonimmunized or inadequately immunized individuals. This article reports a fatal case of tetanus that occurred in a 45-year-old parenteral drug abuser who presented to Harlem Hospital Center with nuchal rigidity, trismus, dysphagia, and spasms of the pectoralis musculature. Multiple cutaneous ulcerations also were observed. Despite aggressive measures that included: endotracheal intubation, administration of human tetanus, hyperimmune globulin, tetanus toxoid, and intravenous penicillin, the patient rapidly deteriorated and manifestations of heightened sympathetic nervous system activity, seizures, and cardiac arrest ensued. The diagnosis of tetanus must be based upon clinical grounds. Clinicians must remain aware of the possibility of tetanus, especially among drug abusers who also are more likely to be evaluated for complications of human immunodeficiency viral infection, which in some cases may mimic tetanus or make the diagnosis more difficult to establish.
PMCID: PMC2568180  PMID: 8189456
3.  Preservation of myocardial ultrastructure after 24 hours of Klebsiella sepsis: histologic, functional, and biochemical correlations. 
Myocardial function with ultrastructure and high energy phosphate levels in dogs was correlated after 24 hours of sepsis using live Klebsiella aerogenes. All animals developed progressive hemodynamic deterioration over a 24 hour period. Mean arterial pressure decreased from 148 +/- 7 mmHg to 85 (P less than 0.01) and cardiac output decreased from 3.43 +/- .31 to 1.6 +/- 0.5 L/min. Left ventricular stroke work decreased from 48.2 +/- 5 to 18.1 +/- 6 gm-meters (P less than 0.001). Systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances were increased at 24 hours (3,538 +/- 27 to 7,404 +/- 1,400 dyne/sec/cm-5 (P less than 0.01), and 185 +/- 20 and 619 +/- 90 dyne/sec/cm-5 (P less than 0.001), respectively. Left ventricular function curves at 24 hours showed a fixed low output. However, myocardial ultrastructure was preserved and high energy phosphate levels remained normal. These observations correlate well with the changes seen clinically in early gram negative sepsis in hypovolemic patients. Thus, this appears to be a suitable model for further investigation of the effects of gram negative sepsis on myocardial performance, ultrastructure, and maintenance of energy stores.
PMCID: PMC2571569  PMID: 2681798

Results 1-5 (5)