Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-6 (6)

Clipboard (0)
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(5):1800-1807.
Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver.
PMCID: PMC175220  PMID: 9125564
2.  Natural immune response to the C-terminal 19-kilodalton domain of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(7):2716-2723.
We have characterized the natural immune responses to the 19-kDa domain of merozoite surface protein 1 in individuals from an area of western Kenya in which malaria is holoendemic. We used the three known natural variant forms of the yeast-expressed recombinant 19-kDa fragment that are referred to as the E-KNG, Q-KNG, and E-TSR antigens. T-cell proliferative responses in individuals older than 15 years and the profile of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody isotypes in individuals from 2 to 74 years old were determined. Positive proliferative responses to the Q-KNG antigen were observed for 54% of the individuals, and 37 and 35% of the individuals responded to the E-KNG and E-TSR constructs, respectively. Considerable heterogeneity in the T-cell proliferative responses to these three variant antigens was observed in different individuals, suggesting that the 19-kDa antigen may contain variant-specific T epitopes. Among responses of the different isotypes of the IgG antibody, IgG1 and IgG3 isotype responses were predominant, and the prevalence and levels of the responses increased with age. We also found that a higher level of IgG1 antibody response correlated with lower parasite density among young age groups, suggesting that IgG1 antibody response may play a role in protection against malaria. However, there was no correlation between the IgG3 antibody level and protection. Furthermore, we observed that although the natural antibodies cross-reacted with all three variant 19-kDa antigens, IgG3 antibodies in 12 plasma samples recognized only the E-KNG and Q-KNG constructs and not the E-TSR antigen. This result suggests that the fine specificity of IgG3 antibodies differentiates among variant-specific natural B-cell determinants in the second epidermal growth factor domain (KNG and TSR) of the antigen.
PMCID: PMC174131  PMID: 8698500
3.  Prevention of renal scarring from pyelonephritis in nonhuman primates by vaccination with a synthetic Escherichia coli serotype O8 oligosaccharide-protein conjugate. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(12):5214-5218.
Rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a synthetic Escherichia coli serotype O8 oligosaccharide-protein conjugate. Using our experimental pyelonephritis monkey model, we tested whether such immunization was protective against the renal damage from inflammation following experimental infection with a P-fimbriated O-antigenically homologous E. coli strain. The vaccination did not significantly alter the duration of bacteriuria or interfere with the infection. However, the vaccine was efficient in renal protection, as vaccinated animals showed significantly less intratubular infiltration of neutrophils (P < 0.02) and the degree of renal scarring was also significantly less in these animals (P > 0.005) than in the control animals. Total kidney involvement in the vaccinated animals was 16.9%, compared with 32.5% in the control animals (P = 0.07).
PMCID: PMC281303  PMID: 8225595
4.  Protective anti-idiotype antibodies in the primate model of pyelonephritis. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(6):2289-2295.
The adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to a receptor containing alpha-D-Gal-(1-4)-beta-D-Gal (Gal-Gal) on urothelial cells is an important pathogenic mechanism in the development of pyelonephritis. Antibodies (Ab1) that had been produced by immunization with Gal-Gal conjugated with bovine serum albumin were specifically purified and used to stimulate the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). While sera from all of the Ab2-producing monkeys contained antibodies reactive with Ab1 and P-fimbriae, not all of the sera inhibited P-fimbrial binding to the Gal-Gal receptor. On the basis of the inhibition of binding, Ab2-producing monkeys were divided into two groups, termed reactive and nonreactive. The reactive and nonreactive Ab2-producing monkeys, together with a group of control monkeys, were challenged with a renal inoculation with P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. Hematologic, immunologic, microbiologic, and pathologic data were compared among the three groups. The reactive monkeys, whose Ab2 in serum inhibited binding between P-fimbriae and the Gal-Gal receptor, were protected against renal damage compared with the control group. The nonreactive group shared some parameters with the reactive group but overall developed renal damage comparable to that of the controls.
PMCID: PMC280847  PMID: 8099064
5.  Maternal immunization with P fimbriae for the prevention of neonatal pyelonephritis. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(1):1-6.
Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were immunized with purified P fimbriae from Escherichia coli during the last trimester of pregnancy. Infants born of these mothers were compared with those from nonimmunized rhesus mothers. A delay in the onset of renal disease after bladder infection showed protection from passive immunization. This was associated with a high antibody titer in serum. In addition to delayed onset of renal infection, a decreased number of immunized monkeys developed pyelonephritis.
PMCID: PMC259223  PMID: 2891616
6.  Pathogenesis of change in the upper respiratory tracts of turkeys experimentally infected with an Alcaligenes faecalis isolate. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;42(1):350-355.
The course of changes within the upper respiratory tracts of turkey poults experimentally infected with Alcaligenes faecalis was studied. The initial change observed (5 days post-inoculation) was colonization of the upper respiratory tract by the bacterium. Changes in the nasal turbinates and trachea were first apparent as a focal loss of cilia but subsequently developed into a general loss of cilia (11 days post-inoculation). Eventually, the entire ciliated epithelial layer in the cranial region of the trachea was lost (13 days post-inoculation). With the loss of cilia and ciliated cells, a highly viscous mucus was able to accumulate in the anterior one-half to two-thirds of the trachea. In addition, changes in the gross structure of the trachea (flaccid trachea) were observed in all poults inoculated with A. faecalis. There was an apparent gradation in the severity of these changes from severe in the cranial region of the trachea to mild in the region just anterior to the bronchial bifurcation. The observations resulting from A. faecalis infection indicated two major tracheal changes responsible for the chronic and sometimes severe nature of this disease. These changes included a loss of ciliary activity and a flaccid trachea which together resulted in the accumulation and stasis of mucus and tracheal collapse.
PMCID: PMC264564  PMID: 6618668

Results 1-6 (6)