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1.  Effect of stretching duration on active and passive range of motion in the lower extremity 
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of different durations of stretching (five or 15 seconds) on active and passive range of motion (ROM) in the lower extremity during a five week flexibility training programme. METHOD: Twenty four university sport club members (19 men, five women), with a mean (SD) age of 20.5 (1.35) years, were randomly assigned to one of three groups (two treatment and one control). The two treatment groups participated in a static active stretching programme three times a week for a five week period, holding each stretch for a duration of either five or 15 seconds. The total amount of time spent in a stretched position was controlled. The five second group performed each stretch nine times and the 15 second group three times resulting in a total stretching time of 45 seconds for both groups for each exercise. The control group did not stretch. Active and passive ROM were determined during left hip flexion, left knee flexion, and left knee extension before and after the training programme using an inclinometer. RESULTS: Two factor within subject analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in ROM before and after the training programme for the control group. However, significant improvements in active and passive ROM (p < 0.05) were shown in both treatment groups after the five week training programme. Two factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and post hoc analysis showed significant differences between the treatment groups and the control group for the improvements observed in active (p < 0.05) and passive (p < 0.05) ROM. The five and 15 second treatment groups did not differ from one another when ROM was assessed passively, but significant differences were apparent for active ROM, with the 15 second group showing significantly greater improvements (p < 0.05) than the five second group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that holding stretches for 15 seconds, as opposed to five seconds, may result in greater improvements in active ROM. However, sustaining a stretch may not significantly affect the improvements gained in passive ROM. 



PMCID: PMC1756178  PMID: 10450481
2.  Genetic variation in Pneumocystis carinii isolates from different geographic regions: implications for transmission. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2000;6(3):265-272.
To study transmission patterns of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in persons with AIDS, we evaluated P. carinii isolates from patients in five U.S. cities for variation at two independent genetic loci, the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA and dihydropteroate synthase. Fourteen unique multilocus genotypes were observed in 191 isolates that were examined at both loci. Mixed infections, accounting for 17.8% of cases, were associated with primary PCP. Genotype frequency distribution patterns varied by patients' place of diagnosis but not by place of birth. Genetic variation at the two loci suggests three probable characteristics of transmission: that most cases of PCP do not result from infections acquired early in life, that infections are actively acquired from a relatively common source (humans or the environment), and that humans, while not necessarily involved in direct infection of other humans, are nevertheless important in the transmission cycle of P. carinii f. sp. hominis.
PMCID: PMC2640877  PMID: 10827116
3.  Telemedicine in Canada. 
PMCID: PMC1879771  PMID: 890636
6.  Sex-linked Hydrocephalus 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1961;36(189):481-485.
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PMCID: PMC2012797  PMID: 13889294
8.  Traumatic Autografting 
British Medical Journal  1952;1(4752):274.
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PMCID: PMC2022605

Results 1-10 (10)