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1.  Characterization of the late-gene regulatory region of phage 21. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(4):1554-1560.
A segment of Escherichia coli bacteriophage 21 DNA encoding the late-gene regulator, Q21, and the late-gene leader RNA segment was sequenced; its structure is similar to those of the related phages lambda and 82. The leader RNA is about 45 nucleotides long and consists essentially entirely of sequences encoding the p-independent terminator that is the putative target of the antitermination activity of Q21. Like the corresponding regions of lambda and 82, the 21 late-gene promoter segment encodes an early transcription pause in vitro, at about nucleotide 18, during which Q21 presumably acts to modify RNA polymerase. The 21 Q gene, cloned in isolation, is active on the late-gene leader segment in trans, and its purified product is active as an antiterminator in vitro; Q21 represents a third late-gene antiterminator, in addition to those of lambda and 82. There is little evident similarity in the primary sequences of the three Q genes.
PMCID: PMC207295  PMID: 1704887
2.  Upstream regulatory sequences of the yeast RNR2 gene include a repression sequence and an activation site that binds the RAP1 protein. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1989;9(12):5359-5372.
The small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (RNR2) was induced 3- to 20-fold by a variety of DNA-damaging agents. Induction of the RNR2 transcript by at least one of these agents, methyl methanesulfonate, did not require protein synthesis. To identify sequences involved in the regulation of RNR2, we introduced deletions upstream of the transcription start site. Sequences required for induction were contained within a 200-base-pair region that could confer methyl methanesulfonate inducibility on the heterologous CYC1 promoter. This region contained a repression sequence and at least two positive activation sites. One of these activation sites bound RAP1, a protein known to associate with mating-type silencers and the upstream activation sequences of a number of genes. The behavior of deletions of the repression sequence suggests that induction of RNR2 may occur, at least in part, through relief of repression.
PMCID: PMC363704  PMID: 2685560
3.  Activation of protease-constitutive recA proteins of Escherichia coli by all of the common nucleoside triphosphates. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1988;170(10):4816-4822.
To understand why the RecA proteins of the protease-constitutive recA1202 and recA1211 mutants show very high protease activities in vivo without the usual need for DNA damage (E. S. Tessman and P. Peterson, J. Bacteriol. 163:677-687, 1985), we examined the activation of the mutant proteins by nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) in vitro. In vivo, the mutant protease activities are resistant to inhibition by cytidine plus guanosine (C + G) in the growth medium, in contrast to the activities of weaker mutants, such as recA441, which are sensitive to C + G inhibition. We found that RecA1202 and RecA1211 proteins, in contrast to RecA+, can use natural NTPs other than ATP and dATP as cofactors in the cleavage of LexA repressor. The effectiveness of NTPs in promoting LexA cleavage by RecA1202 and RecA1211 proteins decreased in roughly the following order: dATP greater than ATP greater than UTP greater than ATP-gamma S greater than dCTP greater than CTP greater than dGTP greater than GTP greater than TTP. These mutant proteins showed higher affinities for ATP and single-stranded DNA and higher repressor cleavage activities than RecA+ protein. With the various effectors (single-stranded DNA or NTPs), the RecA1202 protein always showed more activity than RecA1211 in the cleavage of LexA repressor in vitro, which is consistent with the greater activity of the recA1202 mutant in vivo. The results explain, in part, why some recA mutants have unusually high constitutive RecA protease activity and why that activity is more or less resistant to C + G inhibition.
PMCID: PMC211525  PMID: 3049549
4.  SOS-like induction in Bacillus subtilis: induction of the RecA protein analog and a damage-inducible operon by DNA damage in Rec+ and DNA repair-deficient strains. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1988;170(4):1467-1474.
We quantitated the induction of the Bacillus subtilis Rec protein (the analog of Escherichia coli RecA protein) and the B. subtilis din-22 operon (representative of a set of DNA damage-inducible operons in B. subtilis) following DNA damage in Rec+ and DNA repair-deficient strains. After exposure to mitomycin C or UV irradiation, each of four distinct rec (recA1, recB2, recE4, and recM13) mutations reduced to the same extent the rates of both Rec protein induction (determined by densitometric scanning of immunoblot transfers) and din-22 operon induction (determined by assaying beta-galactosidase activity in din-22::Tn917-lacZ fusion strains). The induction deficiencies in recA1 and recE4 strains were partially complemented by the E. coli RecA protein, which was expressed on a plasmid in B. subtilis; the E. coli RecA protein had no effect on either induction event in Rec+, recB2, or recM13 strains. These results suggest that (i) the expression of both the B. subtilis Rec protein and the din-22 operon share a common regulatory component, (ii) the recA1 and recE4 mutations affect the regulation and/or activity of the B. subtilis Rec protein, and (iii) an SOS regulatory system like the E. coli system is highly conserved in B. subtilis. We also showed that the basal level of B. subtilis Rec protein is about 4,500 molecules per cell and that maximum induction by DNA damage causes an approximately fivefold increase in the rate of Rec protein accumulation.
PMCID: PMC210990  PMID: 3127374
5.  Identification of the gene for the yeast ribonucleotide reductase small subunit and its inducibility by methyl methanesulfonate. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1987;7(10):3673-3677.
We have identified, cloned, and sequenced the gene for the small subunit of ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein and its transcript are induced about 10-fold by the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate, a result which suggests that the gene is induced by DNA damage.
PMCID: PMC368022  PMID: 3316984
6.  Microtube coagulase test for detection of coagulase-positive staphylococci. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1982;15(5):848-851.
Studies were performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a new microtube method for the detection of coagulase production by Staphylococcus aureus. Rabbit plasma containing EDTA was added to and lyophilized in API microtubes. Two standard coagulase plasmas containing EDTA were used in the conventional macrotube test and served as a basis for comparison. No false-positive or false-negative reactions were encountered with the microtube system. With this system, 53% of the coagulase-positive strains tested were detected within 1 h after inoculation, 82% were detected after 2 h, 97% were detected after 3 h, and 99% were detected after 4 h. With the first conventional method, 45, 81, 96, and 98% of the positive strains were detected in 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, respectively, whereas with the second conventional method, only 6% of the positive strains were detected in 1 h, 24% in 2 h, 66% in 3 h, and 81% in 4 h. With the microtube method, 5 of the 139 coagulase-producing strains studied reverted to negative between 5 and 24 h after inoculation, whereas 9 reverted with the more rapid conventional method, and no reversions occurred with the second conventional method. All reversions involved strains which caused gelation of plasma within 1 h after inoculation. The data obtained showed that 99% of the coagulase-positive strains tested could be detected within 4 h by the microtube method. In addition, the microtube method offers a more convenient and economical format for the performance of the coagulase tube test.
PMCID: PMC272200  PMID: 6808014
7.  Comparison of the polyoma virus early and late promoters by transcription in vitro. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1982;10(3):871-887.
Polyoma virus DNA was transcribed in the HeLa whole cell extract in vitro system (1). Early region transcripts with the same 5'-ends as in vivo mRNAs, located 31 +/- 2bp from 'TATA'-boxes, were synthesized by RNA polymerase II. Sequences sufficient for efficient expression of the early promoter were present in a substitution mutant lacking viral DNA from a position 55bp before the principal cap sites. Late region transcripts were synthesised inefficiently. Only one (at nt5129 +/- 2) of the many late mRNA cap sites functioned as an in vitro initiation point. This was the one 5'-end located 31 +/- 2bp from a sequence resembling the 'TATA' consensus. The proportion of late to early region RNA polymerase II transcripts decreased dramatically at suboptimal template concentrations. An hypothesis to explain the regulation of late gene expression in vivo based on these results is proposed. A linear templates were transcribed only by RNA polymerase II, transcripts with the same sense as late mRNAs and 5'-ends at nt5076 +/- 2 were produced from superhelical template by an alpha amanitin resistant enzyme.
PMCID: PMC326208  PMID: 6174941
8.  A potential stem-loop structure and the sequence CAAUCAA in the transcript are insufficient to signal rho-dependent transcription termination at lambda tR1. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1984;12(2):1287-1299.
It has been suggested that a sequence in the RNA transcript that can form a stem and loop structure, followed by the sequence CAAUCAA, is the signal for rho-dependent transcription termination. We tested this hypothesis by synthesizing a DNA duplex whose sequence corresponds to a region of the lambda tR1 terminator that contains these structural features. We cloned this synthetic DNA fragment under the control of the lacUV5 promoter, and showed that it does not cause rho-dependent termination in vitro. RNA polymerase pauses during in vitro transcription across the synthetic sequence, although less efficiently than at the corresponding sequence on the lambda template. No rho-mediated termination was detected even under conditions that prolonged transcriptional pausing at the synthetic site, indicating that the synthetic sequence is defective as a transcript release site. We suggest that unlike rho-independent terminators, rho-dependent terminators require sequences in addition to those immediately before the sites of termination.
PMCID: PMC318573  PMID: 6320123

Results 1-8 (8)