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1.  Prescribing behaviour in general practice: the impact of promoting therapeutically equivalent cheaper medicines. 
BACKGROUND: The volume and cost of prescribing varies considerably between practices. This variation is at least in part due to the prescribing behaviour of individual doctors, who are often faced with a range of therapeutically equivalent generic and brand-name drugs. AIM: To assess the impact on general practitioners' prescribing behaviour of promoting therapeutically equivalent lower cost prescribing in conjunction with an incentive scheme. METHOD: Annual prescribing data from before (1992-93) and after (1993-94) implementation of the incentive scheme were compared retrospectively for general practices in the former Northern Regional Health Authority. Main outcome measures were the practices' 1993-94 rates of prescribing relative to those in 1992-93 for 18 drugs prescribed by brand name, of which 10 were targeted in the promotion, and for 14 drugs or classes of drugs either with equivalent cheaper alternatives or of limited clinical value (10 targeted and four not). RESULTS: For 17 of the 18 drugs, brand name prescribing rates were significantly lower in 1993-94. Reductions in rates were greater for the 10 drugs appearing in the scheme's promotional literature. For other cost-saving measures, total prescribing rates were lower for seven classes of drugs, unchanged for one, but higher for the other six, all of which had been targeted. According to the growth in their overall per capita prescribing costs between the two study years, the 499 practices were categorized as low, average or high. Overall costs and individual prescribing rates for the majority of drugs studied were similar for these three practice groups in 1992-93. In 1993-94, practices' changes in prescribing volume differed between the groups, with the lowest increases in the low cost-growth group for all but one of the 32 classes of drugs. CONCLUSION: Generic substitution was more easily implemented than more complex hints regarding cost-saving substitutions. Practices with smaller overall cost growth were making greater use of cost-beneficial prescribing strategies, whether promoted or otherwise. Simple messages may improve the cost-effectiveness of prescribing in the UK. With information support and encouragement, many prescribers appear to have modified their prescribing habits.
PMCID: PMC1312867  PMID: 9115786
2.  Setting standards of prescribing performance in primary care: use of a consensus group of general practitioners and application of standards to practices in the north of England. 
BACKGROUND: There is considerable variation in prescribing, and existing standards against which primary care prescribing is routinely judged consist largely of local or national averages. There is thus a need for more sophisticated standards, which must be widely applicable and have credibility among the general practice profession. AIM: A study aimed to develop a range of criteria of prescribing quality, to set standards of performance for these criteria, and apply these standards to practices. METHOD: A consensus group consisting of eight general practitioners and a resource team was convened to develop and define criteria and set standards of prescribing performance using prescribing analyses and cost (PACT) data. The standards were applied to 1992-93 prescribing data from all 518 practices in the former Northern Regional Health Authority. RESULTS: The group developed criteria and set numeric standards for 13 aspects of prescribing performance in four areas: generic prescribing, prescribing within specific therapeutic groups, drugs of limited clinical value and standards based on prescribing volume. Except for generic prescribing, standards for individual criteria were achieved by between 9% and 34% of practices. For each criterion, a score was allocated based on whether the standard was achieved or not. Total scores showed considerable variation between practices. The distribution of scores was similar between fundholding and non-fundholding practices, and also between dispensing and non-dispensing practices. CONCLUSION: Using a consensus group of general practitioners it is possible to agree criteria and standards of prescribing performance. This novel approach offers a professionally driven method for assessing the quality of prescribing in primary care.
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PMCID: PMC1239506  PMID: 8745847
4.  The use of nitrates, calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors in primary care in the Northern Region: a pharmacoepidemiological study. 
1. Prescribing rates for cardiovascular drugs have substantial local variation. The objectives of this study were to determine the prescribing prevalence of nitrates, calcium channel blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in general practice, to examine the indications recorded for these prescriptions, and to identify which therapeutic areas contribute to the variation in prescribing. 2. Anonymised patient-specific prescription data were taken from computerised records in 41 VAMP research practices in the Northern Region (total population 330,749). All patients who received any prescription for calcium channel blockers, nitrates or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors during a 12 month period were included. Prescribing rates were determined in terms of patients per 1,000 population within age, sex and diagnostic groups. 3. Overall, 4.3% of the study population were prescribed one or more of the drugs. There was virtually no prescribing for patients under the age of 35 years, but thereafter the prevalences rose steeply to peak at ages 65-74 years for calcium channel blockers (91 per 1,000 population) and ACE inhibitors (34 per 1,000), and at ages 75-84 years for nitrates (100 per 1,000). Prescribing prevalence amongst the over 85's was less than half the peak rate for each drug group. Rates for men and women were comparable, except for nitrates where men had higher rates. 4. Recorded indication rates for patients with ischaemic heart disease and treated with any of these drugs reached 112 per 1,000 population in the 75-84 age group, and were higher in men than women, at all ages. Hypertension indication rates were substantially higher in women over 65; across the genders the peak rate was 88 per 1,000 for those aged 65-74 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1364911  PMID: 7888286

Results 1-4 (4)