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1.  Prevention of renal scarring from pyelonephritis in nonhuman primates by vaccination with a synthetic Escherichia coli serotype O8 oligosaccharide-protein conjugate. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(12):5214-5218.
Rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a synthetic Escherichia coli serotype O8 oligosaccharide-protein conjugate. Using our experimental pyelonephritis monkey model, we tested whether such immunization was protective against the renal damage from inflammation following experimental infection with a P-fimbriated O-antigenically homologous E. coli strain. The vaccination did not significantly alter the duration of bacteriuria or interfere with the infection. However, the vaccine was efficient in renal protection, as vaccinated animals showed significantly less intratubular infiltration of neutrophils (P < 0.02) and the degree of renal scarring was also significantly less in these animals (P > 0.005) than in the control animals. Total kidney involvement in the vaccinated animals was 16.9%, compared with 32.5% in the control animals (P = 0.07).
PMCID: PMC281303  PMID: 8225595
2.  Protective anti-idiotype antibodies in the primate model of pyelonephritis. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(6):2289-2295.
The adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to a receptor containing alpha-D-Gal-(1-4)-beta-D-Gal (Gal-Gal) on urothelial cells is an important pathogenic mechanism in the development of pyelonephritis. Antibodies (Ab1) that had been produced by immunization with Gal-Gal conjugated with bovine serum albumin were specifically purified and used to stimulate the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). While sera from all of the Ab2-producing monkeys contained antibodies reactive with Ab1 and P-fimbriae, not all of the sera inhibited P-fimbrial binding to the Gal-Gal receptor. On the basis of the inhibition of binding, Ab2-producing monkeys were divided into two groups, termed reactive and nonreactive. The reactive and nonreactive Ab2-producing monkeys, together with a group of control monkeys, were challenged with a renal inoculation with P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. Hematologic, immunologic, microbiologic, and pathologic data were compared among the three groups. The reactive monkeys, whose Ab2 in serum inhibited binding between P-fimbriae and the Gal-Gal receptor, were protected against renal damage compared with the control group. The nonreactive group shared some parameters with the reactive group but overall developed renal damage comparable to that of the controls.
PMCID: PMC280847  PMID: 8099064
3.  Attenuation of antibody response to acute pyelonephritis by treatment with antibiotics. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1991;35(11):2340-2344.
While acute pyelonephritis is known to elicit an antibody response, it is also known that a patient who has had pyelonephritis once is susceptible to recurrent renal infection. Using our experimental model of pyelonephritis in the monkey, we tested whether antibiotic therapy of the acute disease would affect the antibody response. We found that it did, because antibiotic therapy beginning 72 h after bacterial inoculation attenuated the antibody response so that rechallenge 3 months later produced acute pyelonephritis and prolonged bacteriuria. The animals with untreated infection had an antibody response that lasted a sufficient period of time to prevent acute pyelonephritis after renal challenge. We have confirmed that antibody titers against P fimbriae are protective, and to a degree, this protective effect may be abrogated by antibiotic therapy.
PMCID: PMC245382  PMID: 1804007
4.  Maternal immunization with P fimbriae for the prevention of neonatal pyelonephritis. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(1):1-6.
Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were immunized with purified P fimbriae from Escherichia coli during the last trimester of pregnancy. Infants born of these mothers were compared with those from nonimmunized rhesus mothers. A delay in the onset of renal disease after bladder infection showed protection from passive immunization. This was associated with a high antibody titer in serum. In addition to delayed onset of renal infection, a decreased number of immunized monkeys developed pyelonephritis.
PMCID: PMC259223  PMID: 2891616

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