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1.  Subcortical infarction resulting in acquired stuttering 
Stuttering is an uncommon presentation of acute stroke. Reported cases have often been associated with left sided cortical lesions, aphasia, and difficulties with other non-linguistic tests of rhythmic motor control. Three patients with subcortical lesions resulting in stuttering are discussed. In one patient the ability to perform time estimations with a computerised repetitive time estimation task was characterised.
One patient had a pontine infarct with clinical evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. A second patient had a left basal ganglionic infarct and a disruption of timing estimation. A third patient had a left subcortical infarct and a mild aphasia.
These findings expand the reported distribution of infarction that can result in acquired stuttering. Subcortical mechanisms of speech control and timing may contribute to the pathophysiology of acquired stuttering.

PMCID: PMC1737123  PMID: 10990523
2.  Heterosexual spread of human immunodeficiency virus in Edinburgh 
Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was investigated in 123 subjects with no apparent risk factor for infection other than having had heterosexual intercourse with a person who was either infected with HIV or at high risk of being infected with it. Seven subjects were found to be infected with the virus. Risk factors for transmission included being the regular sexual partner of an abuser of intravenous drugs and having a sexual relationship of more than 18 months' duration. Anal intercourse was not a risk factor in the three subjects who admitted to it. There were 41 regular partnerships with abusers of intravenous drugs in which the antibody state and history were fully known for both partners. In these partnerships male to female transmission of the virus occurred in five out of 34 (15%) and female to male in one out of seven. In 30 couples in whom one partner was known to be positive for HIV and an abuser of intravenous drugs four female partners were found to be seropositive at first testing, but there were no new positive results on subsequent serial testing. In six of these 30 couples both partners abused intravenous drugs but the partner who was negative for HIV remained so. Few of the partnerships always practised safe sexual techniques, even after a partner was known to be positive for HIV.
Heterosexual transmission of HIV occurred but was incomplete and may be related to the timing of the relationship with the infection.
PMCID: PMC2545169  PMID: 3126891
3.  Cost-Benefit Analysis in a Computer-Based Hospital Information System 
A unique cost benefit analysis model is developed for a Hospital Information System which is being used in an ancillary (service) department. The objective of this analysis approach is to determine the financial impact of a proposed hospital/clinical information system at the department and hospital level. Based on industrial engineering techniques and compartmental analysis, the mathematical model is applied to the Dallas County Hospital District Radiology Department considering the procedure costs before and after installation of the Parkland On-Line Information System (POIS). Using the concepts of an “average procedure” and Standard Patient Load, preliminary results from the model indicated the unit procedure cost would drop from $8.66 to $8.63 each. Further savings were generated because of a 3% decrease in volume due to elimination of duplicate procedures. These combined effects give a preliminary calculated annualized savings of $70,887.
PMCID: PMC2232030

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