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author:("ree, Karen")
1.  Regulation of bile acid homeostasis by the intestinal Diet1–FGF15/19 axis 
Current opinion in lipidology  2014;25(2):140-147.
Purpose of review
Hepatic bile acid synthesis is controlled, in part, by a complex enterohepatic feedback regulatory mechanism. In this review, we focus on the role of the intestinal FGF15/19 hormone in modulating bile acid levels, and additional metabolic effects on glucose metabolism, non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD), and liver regeneration. We also highlight the newly identified intestinal protein, Diet1, which is a modulator of FGF15/19 levels.
Recent findings
Low FGF19 levels are associated with bile acid diarrhea and NAFLD. In contrast, high FGF19 levels are associated with diabetes remission following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, suggesting new therapeutic approaches against type 2 diabetes. The effect of FGF15/19 on liver plasticity is a double-edged sword: whereas elevated FGF15/19 levels improve survival of mice after partial hepatectomy, FGF19 mitogenic activity is associated with liver carcinoma. Finally, a recent study has identified Diet1, an intestinal factor that influences FGF15/19 levels in mouse intestine and human enterocytes. Diet1 represents the first factor shown to influence FGF15/19 levels at a post-transcriptional level.
Summary
The biological effects of FGF15/19 make it an attractive target for treating metabolic dysregulation underlying conditions such as fatty liver and type 2 diabetes. Further elucidation of the role of Diet1 in FGF15/19 secretion may provide a control point for pharmacological modulation of FGF15/19 levels.
doi:10.1097/MOL.0000000000000060
PMCID: PMC4497822  PMID: 24535283
enterohepatic circulation; fibroblast growth factor; NAFLD; gastric bypass
2.  The Lipin Family: Mutations and Metabolism 
Current opinion in lipidology  2009;20(3):165-170.
Purpose of review
The family of three lipin proteins act as phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) enzymes required for glycerolipid biosynthesis, and also as transcriptional coactivators that regulate expression of lipid metabolism genes. The genes for lipin-1, lipin-2 and lipin-3 are expressed in key metabolic tissues, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver, but the physiological functions of each member of the family have not been fully elucidated. Here we examine the most recent studies that provide information about the roles of lipin proteins in metabolism and human disease.
Recent findings
Recent studies have identified mutations that cause lipin-1 or lipin-2 deficiency in humans, leading to acute myoglobinuria in childhood or the inflammatory disorder Majeed syndrome, respectively. The effects of lipin-1 deficiency appear to include both the loss of glycerolipid building blocks and the accumulation of lipid intermediates that disrupt cellular function. Several studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in the LPIN1 and LPIN2 genes are associated with metabolic disease traits, including insulin sensitivity, diabetes, blood pressure, and response to thiazolidinedione drugs. Furthermore, lipin-1 expression levels in adipose tissue and/or liver are positively correlated with insulin sensitivity. Studies of lipin-1 in adipocytes have shed some light on its relationship with insulin sensitivity.
Summary
Lipin-1 and lipin-2 are required for normal lipid homeostasis, and have unique physiological roles. Future studies, for example using engineered mouse models, will be required to fully elucidate their specific roles in normal physiology and disease.
doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e32832adee5
PMCID: PMC2875192  PMID: 19369868
triglyceride; phosphatidic acid phosphatase; transcriptional coactivator; lipodystrophy; obesity; insulin resistance; myopathy

Results 1-2 (2)